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Table 1 Summary of study characteristics

From: Foot posture as a risk factor for lower limb overuse injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Population Observation period (activity, duration) Injury outcome Injured group Uninjured group Foot posture measure
     N total (n females) Age (mean ± SD) N total (n females) Age (mean ± SD)
Bennett et al., 2001 [31] Cross country runners 8 weeks Medial tibial stress syndrome 15 (13) 15.3 (±1.0) 21 (8) 15.7 (±1.5) Resting calcaneal position (degrees)
Yates and White, 2004 [32] Naval recruits 10 weeks basic training Medial tibial stress syndrome 40 (18) NR 84 (22) NR FPI-8
Burne et al., 2004 [33] Military cadets 12 months Medial tibial stress syndrome 23 (11) NR 135 (25) NR Resting calcaneal position (degrees)
Willems et al., 2006 [34] Physical education students 12 months Medial tibial stress syndrome 46 (29) NR 354 (130) NR Resting calcaneal position (degrees)
Reinking, 2006 [35] Female collegiate athletes One athletic season Medial tibial stress syndrome 20 (20) NR 56 (56) NR Navicular drop
Reinking et al., 2007 [36] Collegiate athletes One athletic season Medial tibial stress syndrome 60 (31) NR 28 (13) NR Navicular drop
Plisky et al., 2007 [37] High school runners 13 weeks Medial tibial stress syndrome 16 (11) NR 88 (29) NR Navicular drop
Hubbard et al., 2009 [38] Collegiate athletes One athletic season Medial tibial stress syndrome 29 (9) 19 (±0.98) 117 (72) 19.9 (±1.8) Navicular drop
Bennett et al., 2012 [39] Cross country runners Cross country season Medial tibial stress syndrome 26 (13) NR NR 33 (15) Navicular drop
Yagi et al., 2013 [40] High school runners 3 years Medial tibial stress syndrome 102 (44) NR 142 (54) NR Navicular drop
Hetresoni et al., 2006 [41] Infantry recruits 14 weeks basic training Patellofemoral pain 61 (NR) NR 344 (NR) NR Resting calcaneal position (degrees)
Thijs et al., 2008 [42] Recreational runners 10 weeks Patellofemoral pain 17 (16) 39.4 (±10.3) 85 (73) 37.6 (±9.4) FPI-6
Boling et al., 2009 [43] Naval recruits 1-2.5 years Patellofemoral pain 40 (16) NR 1279 (489) NR Navicular drop
Beynnon et al., 2001 [44] Collegiate athletes One college season Foot/ankle injury 20 (13) NR 98 (55) NR Longitudinal arch angle
Cain et al., 2007 [45] Male Futsal players One Futsal season Foot/ankle injury 33 (0) NR 43 (0) NR FPI-6
Winfield et al., 1997 [46] Female marines 10 weeks basic training Bone stress reaction 12 (12) NR 89 (89) NR Subtalar joint ROM (Goniometry)
Kaufman et al., 1999 [47] Male Navy Seal candidates 2 Years LL overuse injury 149 (0) NR 300 (0) NR Longitudinal arch angle
Burns et al., 2005 [48] Triathletes 10 weeks LL overuse injury 37 (NR) NR 91 (NR) NR FPI-8
Rauh et al., 2010 [49] Female marines 13 weeks LL overuse injury 104 (110) NR 644 (634) NR Longitudinal arch angle
Buist et al., 2010 [50] Novice runners 13 weeks LL overuse injury 100 NR 476 NR Navicular drop
Nielsen et al., 2014 [51] Novice runners 12 Months LL overuse injury 252 (NR) NR 478 (NR) NR FPI-6
  1. LL = lower limb; NR = not reported; FPI = foot posture index.