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Table 1 Summary of study characteristics

From: Dynamic foot function as a risk factor for lower limb overuse injury: a systematic review

  Population Observation period (activity, duration) Injury outcome Injured group Uninjured group Gait assessment Foot function measure
N total (n females) Age (mean ± SD) N total (n females) Age (mean ± SD)
Hesar et al., [38] Athletics club members 3 running sessions/week; 10 weeks LL overuse injury 27 (22) 41 ± 8 104 (89) 39 ± 11 Barefoot; 15 m runway; self-selected running speed Plantar loading (Footscan)
Hetsroni et al., [27] Military personal 4 month basic training course Patellofemoral pain NR NR NR NR Barefoot; treadmill running at 5 km/hr Rearfoot kinematics (Ariel Dynamics Inc.)
Hetsroni et al., [39] Military personal 4 month basic training course Tibial and femoral stress fractures Dependent on outcome variable investigated NR Dependent on outcome variable investigated NR Barefoot; treadmill running at 5 km/hr Rearfoot kinematics (Ariel Dynamics Inc.)
Kaufman et al., [29] Military personal 25 week training course LL overuse injury Dependent on outcome variable investigated NR Dependent on outcome variable investigated NR Boots and barefoot; self-selected walking speed (no mean or range presented) Plantar pressure ratios – dynamic arch index (<4.14 cavus, >8.10 planus)
Noehren et al., [40] Female runners Individual non-specified running programs over a 2 year period Iliotibial band syndrome 18 (18) 26 Dependent on outcome variable investigated 28 ‘Standard running shoe’; running along a 25 runway at a speed of 3.7 m/s Rearfoot kinematics (Vicon)
Noehren et al., [46] Female runners Individual non-specified running programs over a 2 year period Patellofemoral pain 15 (15) 27 ± 10 15 (15) 27 ± 10 ‘Standard running shoe’ (Nike, Pegasus); running along a 25 run way at a speed of 3.7 m/s Rearfoot kinematics (Vicon)
Sharma et al., [41] Male infantry recruits 26 week military training Medial tibial stress syndrome 37 (0) NR 239 (0) NR Barefoot; self selected walking speed (no mean or range presented) Plantar loading (Footscan)
Thijs et al., [42] Novice recreational runners 10 week start to run programme Patellofemoral pain 17 (16) 39 ± 10 85 (NR) 37 ± 9 Barefoot; walking at a self-chosen, moderate velocity (no mean or range presented) Plantar loading (Footscan)
Thijs et al., [43] Military personal 6 week basic military training Patellofemoral pain 36 (19) 19 ± 2 48 (NR) 19 ± 1 Barefoot; walking at a self-chosen, moderate velocity (no mean or range presented) Plantar loading (Footscan)
Van Ginckel et al., [44] Novice runners 10 week start to run programme Achilles tendinopathy 10 (2) 38 ± 11 53 (45) 40 ± 9 Barefoot; self-selected jogging pace (no mean or range presented) Plantar loading (Footscan)
Willems et al., [35] Physical education students University physical education course LL overuse injury 46 (29) NR 167 (NR) NR Barefoot; 3.3 m/s within a boundary of 0.17 m/s Plantar loading (Footscan)/ankle, knee and hip kinematics and kinetics (Proreflex)
Willems et al., [45] Physical education students University physical education course LL overuse injury 46 (29) NR 167 (NR) NR ‘Neutral running shoe’; 3.3 m/s within a boundary of 0.17 m/s Plantar loading (Footscan)/ankle, knee and hip kinematics and kinetics (Proreflex)
  1. LL = lower limb; NR = not reported.