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Table 1 For each foot segment combination and plane of motion, mean (95% CI) of the angle of at IC, FFL, HO and TO, the maximum and minimum angles in stance, and the total range of motion during swing

From: Movement of the human foot in 100 pain free individuals aged 18–45: implications for understanding normal foot function

   Angle at: Max (Stance) Min (Stance) ROM swing
   IC FFL HO TO
   Mean 95% CI Mean 95% CI Mean 95% CI Mean 95% CI Mean 95% CI Mean 95% CI Mean 95% CI
Calcaneus-tibia Sag −3.1 −3.9– –2.2 −8.9 −9.8– –8.2 5.6 4.8– 6.4 −17.2 −18.3– –16.1 5.8 4.9– 6.6 −17.1 −18.2– –16.1 19.5 18.4– 20.5
Frt 4.0 3.2– 4.8 1.9 1.3– 2.7 −0.9 −1.6– −0.6 6.8 5.5– 8.1 8.9 7.9– 9.9 −3.9 −4.7– –3.3 −5.1 −6.7– –3.5
Trn 2.2 1.5– 2.9 3.1 2.3– 3.9 1.9 1.3– 2.6 −1.8 −2.8– –0.8 6.4 5.7– 7.0 −5.0 −5.9– –4.2 3.6 1.9– 5.3
Midfoot–calcaneus Sag −2.1 −3.2– –1.1 −1.2 −2.1– 0.2 1.6 0.6– 2.5 −0.5 −1.6– 0.6 3.2 2.3– 4.1 −2.8 −3.8– 1.9 −1.8 −2.4– –1.3
Frt 0.5 −0.1– 1.1 1.1 0.5– 1.6 −0.5 −1.0– 0.7 −0.5 −1.2– 0.1 1.9 1.4– 2.5 −1.7 −2.3– 1.1 3.1 2.1– 4.0
Trn −0.7 −1.2– –0.2 0.0 −0.5– 0.5 0.6 0.1– 1.1 −0.8 −1.4– 0.3 1.5 1.0– 2.1 −1.5 −2.0– –0.9 0.5 −0.3– 1.3
Lateral forefoot–midfoot Sag −1.9 −3.0– –0.9 −0.2 −1.2– 0.7 3.3 2.3– 4.2 −7.7 −8.9– –6.5 4.8 3.9– 5.6 −7.7 −8.9– –6.5 7.8 6.6– 9.0
Frt 3.9 2.8– 5.1 1.5 0.6– 2.5 −0.8 −1.8– 0.1 4.1 2.7– 5.4 6.2 5.2– 7.2 −5.7 −6.6– –4.8 −2.8 −5.2– –0.4
Trn −4.6 −5.4– –3.8 −2.6 −3.2– –1.9 −0.8 −1.8– 0.1 4.1 2.7– 5.4 3.4 2.8– 4.0 −8.1 −8.9– –7.3 4.0 2.8– 5.3
Medial forefoot–midfoot Sag −1.3 −2.6– –0.01 −0.5 −1.6– 0.6 3.7 2.5– 4.8 −8.5 −9.9– –7.1 4.7 3.5– 5.8 −9 −10.5– –7.5 8.2 7.0– 9.4
Frt −0.5 −1.4– 0.4 −1.4 −2.1– 0.6 −0.5 −1.2– 0.2 −1.9 −3.2– 0.8 1.6 0.8– 2.5 −3.9 −4.9– –3.0 3.1 2.1– 4.2
Trn 1.8 1.1– 2.6 1.7 0.9– 2.4 1.6 0.8– 2.3 −3.7 −4.5– –2.8 2.9 2.2– 3.6 −5.4 −6.2– –4.6 6.5 5.9– 7.2
Hallux – medial forefoot Sag 17.4 15.9– 19.0 12.7 11.4– 14.1 6.1 5.1– 7.2 33.2 31.2– 35.1 44.9 43.3– 46.7 0.5 −0.4– 1.4 −16.9 −18.4– –15.4
Frt 0.9 −0.4– 2.3 0.9 −0.3– 2.1 0.01 −1.0– 1.0 −1.7 −3.5– 0.1 2.6 1.5– 3.7 −7.9 −9.5– –6.3 1.6 0.1– 3.0
Trn 2.9 1.9– 3.9 1.9 1.1– 2.8 1.2 −2.0– −0.4 5.3 3.9– 6.6 6.1 4.8– 7.3 −2.8 −3.9– –1.8 3.1 1.1– 5.0