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Table 2 Talocrural and subtalar joint angle changes during each period after toe contact

From: Changes in talocrural and subtalar joint kinematics of barefoot versus shod forefoot landing

Period Joint Condition Barefoot Shod Mean difference Difference p value
Variable Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Toe contact - heel contact Talocrural joint Dorsi(+)/plantar(−) flexion (deg) 9.8 (9.2) 9.0 (5.0) 0.8 - 0.763
Eversion(+)/inversion(−) (deg) −0.9 (1.0) 2.1 (1.7) −3.0 - 0.076
External(+)/internal(−) rotation (deg) −1.5 (1.2) −2.6 (2.1) 1.1 - 0.083
Subtalar joint Dorsi(+)/plantar(−) flexion (deg) 2.0 (1.4) 1.7 (1.3) 0.3 - 0.494
Eversion(+)/inversion(−) (deg) 1.8 (1.0) 3.0 (0.9) −1.2 - 0.083
External(+)/internal(−) rotation (deg) 2.1 (0.9) 3.5 (1.8) −1.4 - 0.197
Heel contact - 150 msec after toe contact Talocrural joint Dorsi(+)/plantar(−) flexion (deg) 10.0 (1.9) 10.8 (3.1) −0.8 - 0.431
Eversion(+)/inversion(−) (deg) 1.4 (0.7) 1.7 (1.4) −0.3 - 0.412
External(+)/internal(−) rotation (deg) −2.2 (1.9) 2.4 (1.4) −4.6 - 0.664
Subtalar joint Dorsi(+)/plantar(−) flexion (deg) 2.2 (2.1) 0.7 (0.4) 1.5 - 0.074
Eversion(+)/inversion(−) (deg) 3.2 (2.3) 0.7 (0.7) 2.5 * 0.044
External(+)/internal(−) rotation (deg) 2.5 (2.2) 2.1 (2.2) 0.4 - 0.769
Maximum vertical ground reaction force (N/body weight) 1.58 (0.58) 1.39 (0.54) 0.2 * 0.031
0.0
  1. *, significant difference; SD, standard deviation.