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Table 4 Pairwise comparisons expressed as mean difference and 95% confidence intervals (CI), p -value and standardised mean difference (SMD) for linear measures in mm and angular measures in degrees

From: A radiographic and anthropometric study of the effect of a contoured sandal and foot orthosis on supporting the medial longitudinal arch

   Contoured sandal Contoured sandal Contoured sandal Orthosis Orthosis Flat sandal
   Barefoot Flat sandal Orthosis Barefoot Flat sandal Barefoot
Dorsal height MD 4.3 3.2 1.9 2.4 1.3 1.1
95% CI (1.9 to 6.6) (1.4 to 5.0) (0.6 to 3.3) (1.0 to 3.7) (0.2 to 2.4) (0.1 to 2.3)
P-value 0.001 0.001 0.006 0.001 0.020 0.085
SMD 1.8 1.7 1.4 1.7 1.2 0.9
Navicular height MD 5.9 3.9 2.4 3.6 1.6 2.0
95% CI (3.2 to 8.6) (1.4 to 6.4) (0.2 to 4.5) (1.4 to 5.7) (-0.1 to 3.2) (0.8 to 3.2)
P-value <0.001 0.003 0.028 0.002 0.077 0.001
SMD 2.2 1.6 1.1 1.6 0.9 1.7
Sole to floor angle MD 1.4 3.0 1.4 0.0 1.6 1.6
95% CI (0.6 to 2.2) (2.2 to 3.8) (0.6 to 2.2) (-0.4 to 0.4) (1.0 to 2.3) (1.1 to 2.1)
P-value 0.001 <0.001 3.9 0.001 1.000 <0.001 2.4 <0.001 3.2
SMD 1.7   1.7 0   
Tibia to sole angle MD 2.0 2.4 1.7 0.3 0.6 0.4
95% CI (0.3 to 3.7) (0.2 to 4.5) (0.6 to 2.9) (-1.5 to 0.9) (-2.7 to 1.4) (-2.2 to 2.9)
P-value 0.020 0.031 0.004 1.000 1.000 1.000
SMD 1.2 1.1 1.5 0.2 0.3 0.1
Foot length MD 0.7 1.3 0.5 0.2 -0.8 -0.6
95% CI (-1.3 to 2.7) (-0.4 to 3.0) (-1.7 to 2.7) (-2.1 to 2.5) (-3.1 to 1.5) (-2.1 to 0.9)
P-value 1.000 0.200 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
SMD 0.4 0.8 0.2 0.1 -0.4 -0.4