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Table 1 Coupling angles

From: Distal foot segment joint coupling patterns during walking gait

Couple Stance Subphase Coupling Direction (°)
Distal joint complex
Motion Plane
Proximal joint complex
Motion Plane
Loading response Midstance Terminal stance Pre-swing
Calcaneonavicular
Frontal
Rearfoot
Frontal
149.45±30.98 234.34±50.18 232.74±72.60 243.19±134.42
Calcaneonavicular
Transverse
Rearfoot
Transverse
36.54±34.37 33.01±4.16 33.18±9.40 40.42±14.61
Calcaneocuboid
Sagittal
Rearfoot
Sagittal
149.67±44.46 214.90±107.08 225.71±108.97 211.40±41.84
Calcaneocuboid
Frontal
Rearfoot
Frontal
213.83±22.85 172.10±68.40 131.86±98.60 190.87±126.79
Calcaneocuboid
Transverse
Rearfoot
Transverse
287.89±98.31a 169.05±32.07a 150.01±19.73 160.40±45.48
Medial forefoot
Sagittal
Calcaneonavicular
Frontal
129.19±113.93 129.38±41.21b 182.49±43.12bc 256.82±19.86c
Lateral forefoot
Sagittal
Calcaneocuboid
Frontal
170.25±43.90 133.17±72.88 88.87±71.84c 230.62±90.23c
First MTP Sagittal Medial forefoot
Sagittal
262.83±77.59 184.36±125.82 129.68±83.16 112.24±7.60
  1. aSignificantly different loading response and midstance subphase coupling angles
  2. bSignficantly different midstance and terminal stance subphase coupling angles
  3. cSignficantly different terminal stance and pre-swing subphase coupling angles