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Table 1 Magnitude (Mag) and variability (Var) of kinematic and EMG parameters, significant surface comparisons (PRS vs. UIS) indicated in bold.

From: Walking on an unpredictable irregular surface changes lower limb biomechanics and subjective perception compared to walking on a regular surface

  Frontal plane ankle angle [deg] Normalized muscle activity during stance [%]
  Inversion touchdown Eversion maximum Tibialis Anterior Gastrocnemius Med Peroneus Longus
  Mag Var Mag Var Mag Var Mag Var Mag Var
PRS -2.8 1.5 7.7 0.9 19.1 2.6 31.3 4.9 38.8 9.7
UIS -1.5 1.9 9.3 3.4 19.6 3.4 31.9 5.5 48.5 11.3
p-value .006 .002 .001 001 .435 .013 .831 .049 .006 .163