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Table 1 Magnitude (Mag) and variability (Var) of kinematic and EMG parameters, significant surface comparisons (PRS vs. UIS) indicated in bold.

From: Running on an unpredictable irregular surface changes lower limb biomechanics and subjective perception compared to running on a regular surface

  Sagittal plane angles [deg] Normalized muscle activity during stance [%]
  Shoe to Surface Shoe to Shank Tibialis Anterior Gastrocnemius Med Peroneus Longus
  Mag Var Mag Var Mag Var Mag Var Mag Var
PRS 20.8 2.1 9.7 1.3 24.4 3.3 42.1 5.6 42.7 5.8
UIS 17.0 2.7 7.1 1.9 22.8 3.5 43.5 5.4 46.8 7.7
p-value .001 .102 .001 .055 .149 .492 .831 .586 .025 .068