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Table 1 Foot and ankle items assessed in the 1000 Norms Project

From: 1000 Norms Project: understanding foot and ankle health, disease and normality

Item Item Description Measurement variables
Plantar pressure Collection of plantar pressure during gait using two-step protocol and Emed pressure platform (Novel) Peak pressure, mean pressure and pressure-time integral at different regions of the foot
Ankle range of motion Active ankle plantarflexion measured using goniometry Passive ankle dorsiflexion measured using weight-bearing lunge test Plantarflexion angle in degrees Dorsiflexion angle in degrees
Ankle strength Plantarflexion strength assessed using fixed dynamometry Dorsiflexion strength assessed using handheld dynamometry Results from three trials presented as raw data in Newtons and also normalised to body weight
Toe flexor strength Paper Grip Test assessing strength of hallux and four lesser toes Pass/fail score recorded for ability to grip paper under toes
Gait Spatio-temporal aspects of gait measured using Zeno walkway (Protokinetics) Step time, step length and width, gait velocity and foot progression angle
Foot posture Foot Posture Index consisting of six assessments relating to foot posture Foot posture graded on a 15-point scale from -12 (varus) to +12 (valgus)
Ankle instability Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (Adult and Youth versions) consisting of 9 items pertaining to self-perception of ankle stability Overall score out of 30 where higher scores indicate greater instability