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Table 1 Summary of Participant Characteristics, Outcome Measures and Quality Index Scores of Included Studies

From: Relationship between intrinsic foot muscle weakness and pain: a systematic review

  Munteanu et al. 2012[1] Duranti et al. 1985[2] Schmid et al. 2009[3] Chang et al. 2012[4] Allen et al. 2003[5] Mickle et al. 2011[6] Shamus et al. 2004[7]
Sample size n=151 A: n=15 A: n=80 A: n=8 A: n=20 n=312 A: n=10
   B: n=5 B: n=80 B: n=8 Bilat B: n=20   B: n=10
Mean age (SD), yrs 54.5 (11.2) A: 55.4 A: 48 44.9 (8.4) A: 44.9 (9.2) 71 (6.5) A: 32 (6.3)
   B: 51.7 B: 48   B: 43.1 (8.0)   B: 33.6 (5.4)
Gender 95 M 56W A: 5M 10W A: 38M 42W 1M 7 W A: 4M 16W 158M 154W A: 2M 8W
   B: 2M 3W B: 38M 42W   B: 4M 16W   B: 3M 7W
Pathology a OA of 1st MPJ HV/Chronic pain Foot pain Plantar fasciitis Plantar fasciitis Foot pain Hallux limitus
Muscle tests b Direct/PP Indirect/EMG Indirect/MRI Indirect/MRI Direct/St. G Direct/PP Direct/Dyno
Pain scales c FHSQ P/A P/A FFI P+≥ 2 mths/A MFPDI Verbal p scale
Association No No No No/Yes Yes Yes Yes
Quality Index Score 81% 40% 56% 82% 78% 89% 71%
  1. Legend: A: Symptomatic Group B: Control Group Bilat - bilateral feet as control.
  2. Pathologya: OA of 1st MPJ- osteoarthritis of 1st metatarsophalangeal joint; HV- hallux valgus.
  3. Muscle testsb: Indirect: MRI- magnetic resonances imaging, EMG- electromyography. Direct: PP- pressure plate, St. G-strain gauge, Dyno- dynamometry.
  4. Pain scalesc: FHSQ- Foot health survey questionnaire; P/A- present or absent; P + ≥ 2mths- present plus greater than or equal to 2 months duration;
  5. FFI- Foot function index; MFPDI-Manchester foot pain and disability index; Verbal pain scale