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Table 1 Mean and standard deviation movements of each foot segment in each plane

From: The effect of stroke on foot biomechanics; underlying mechanisms and the functional consequences

Parameter Stroke survivors healthy volunteers P value (95%CI)
REARFOOT MOTION - SAGITTAL PLANE
Range of movement during initial plantarflexion 3.3° ± 2.1° 5.4° ± 2.5° P < 0.007 (-3.6 to -0.6)
Range of plantarflexion during late stance 11° ± 4.6° 15.6° ± 4.5° P < 0.003 (-7.5 to -1.7)
REARFOOT MOTION - FRONTAL PLANE
Total range of movement 8.9° ± 3.2° 12° ± 3.3° P < 0.006 (-5.1 to -0.9)
maximum eversion 3.5° ± 2.1° 2.3° ± 1.5° P < 0.05 (-0.06 to 2.3)
Range of inversion during late stance 8.8° ± 3.4° 12° ± 3.4° P < 0.006 (-5.3 to -1.0)
REARFOOT MOTION – TRANSVERSE PLANE
Total range of movement 6.4° ± 2.6° 9.0° ± 4.9° P < 0.04 (-5.1 to -0.09)
Maximum abduction 1.3 ± 2.7° 3.3° ± 3.2° P < 0.05 (-3.8 to -0.03)
Range of movement during the adduction phase 6.1 ± 2.9° 9.0° ± 4.9° P < 0.03 (-5.5 to -0.3)
FOREFOOT MOTION - SAGITTAL PLANE
Range of final plantarflexion phase 1.9° ± 2.1° 4.6° ± 3.3° P < 0.008 (-4.8 to -0.8)
FOREFOOT MOTION – TRANSVERSE PLANE
Range of the final adduction phase 1.3° ± 1.8° 3.1° ± 1.9° P < 0.009 (-3.1 to -0.5)