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Open Access

Correlation between radiography and motions of foot and ankle during gait using 3D multi-segment foot model

  • Dong Yeon Lee1Email author,
  • Sang Gyo Seo1,
  • Ji-Beom Kim1,
  • Sung Ju Kim1 and
  • In Ho Choi1
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research20147(Suppl 1):A132

Published: 8 April 2014


Reaction ForceImpact VelocityImpact ForceGround Reaction ForceBiomechanical Factor


The purpose of this study was to provide basic quantitative data to minimize the injury occurring during forward breakfall by the comparative analysis of biomechanical factors through 3D motion analysis, analysis of ground reaction force, and EMG analysis of the forward breakfall of the martial arts targeting 10 skilled and 10 unskilled subjects.


In this study, three-dimensional motion analysis, the nine high-speed camera (Motionmaster 100, KOR) was used, the desired total floor reaction force device (ATMI, USA) 2 units was measured using an impact force. And the floor reaction force and three-dimensional motion analysis program was used for the Kwon3dXP. Group differences for verification and program SPSS 21.0 was used.


The following are the findings. Firstly, the total time taken for forward breakfall of the martial arts showed 1.53±0.04 s for skilled, and 1.41±0.06s for unskilled subjects (p<.01).

Second, during forward breakfall of the martial arts, the skilled subjects came up with significantly faster impact velocity in the primary point of impact (E2) (p<.001), but the unskilled subjects showed significantly faster impact velocity in the secondary point of impact (E3) (p<.001).

Third, the forward breakfall of the martial arts did not show any difference between left and right side in the reaction force, but unskilled subjects proved a significantly greater forward and backward reaction force in the secondary point of impact(E3) both right and left sides(right: p<.01, left: p<.001). The skilled subjects showed a significantly greater vertical reaction force in the primary point of impact (E2) (right: p<.001, left: p<.001), and unskilled subjects showed a larger vertical reaction force in the secondary point of impact (E3), respectively (right: p<.01, left: p<.05).


Therefore, in order to reduce the impact force when the forward motion action Break fall slowly to reduce the impact velocity and the impact of the hand compared to alleviate elbow seems to be good.

Authors’ Affiliations

Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea


© Lee et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.