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Table 3 Summary of secondary outcome measures by data of multiple imputation

From: Efficacy of intraarticular botulinum toxin A and intraarticular hyaluronate plus rehabilitation exercise in patients with unilateral ankle osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial

Outcome Baseline 2 weeks 1 month 3 months 6 months
  BoNT-A HA BoNT-A HA BoNT-A HA BoNT-A HA BoNT-A HA
AOFAS Ankle/Hindfoot score 71.3 ± 11.6 70.0 ± 11.7 84.5 ± 8.8 82.9 ± 12.3 88.1 ± 12.1 88.1 ± 11.8 89.0 ± 7.3 88.1 ± 11.3 88.3 ± 7.2 86.4 ± 12.5
A.M.D. (95% CI)    1.4 (-2.5, 5.4) -0.2 (-4.1, 3.8) 0.8 (-2.8, 4.4) 1.9 (-1.7, 5.5)
p b    0.48 0.93 0.66 0.30
VAS pain scalea 4.0 ± 1.8 3.9 ± 1.2 1.8 ± 1.2 1.8 ± 1.2 1.8 ± 1.3 1.7 ± 1.5 1.7 ± 1.2 1.7 ± 1.1 1.8 ± 0.9 1.7 ± 1.1
A.M.D. (95% CI)    -0.04 (-0.5, 0.5) 0.01 (-0.6, 0.6) 0.01 (-0.4, 0.5) 0.1 (-0.3, 0.5)
p b    0.88 0.97 0.95 0.71
SLS 25.0 ± 19.4 25.4 ± 16.0 34.1 ± 26.6 36.8 ± 22.5 36.9 ± 23.8 43.0 ± 18.6 36.8 ± 21.8 41.7 ± 19.6 36.5 ± 23.3 40.0 ± 20.0
A.M.D. (95% CI)    -2.3 (-6.3, 1.7) -5.7 (-10.4, -1.0) -4.6 (-9.7, 0.5) -3.1 (-8.2, 2.1)
p b    0.26 0.02* 0.08 0.24
TUGa 8.4 ± 3.0 8.2 ± 2.5 7.2 ± 2.3 6.9 ± 2.4 6.5 ± 1.7 6.3 ± 1.9 6.6 ± 1.7 6.6 ± 2.0 6.8 ± 1.8 6.7 ± 2.1
A.M.D. (95% CI)    0.1 (-0.3, 0.5) 0.1 (-0.4, 0.5) -0.1 (-0.6, 0.4) -0.04 (-0.5, 0.5)
p b    0.59 0.72 0.56 0.88
Acetaminophena (tablets/week) 16.0 ± 5.4 17.0 ± 6.4 8.4 ± 5.2 8.9 ± 4.9 8.3 ± 4.3 8.5 ± 3.2 8.7 ± 4.9 9.3 ± 3.6 9.2 ± 4.9 9.5 ± 6.0
A.M.D. (95% CI)    -0.1 (-1.6, 1.5) 0.3 (-1.0, 1.5) -0.1 (-1.5, 1.4) 0.3 (-1.1, 1.7)
p b    0.93 0.67 0.94 0.66
  1. Values are the mean ± standard deviation; AOFAS = the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society, VAS = Visual analog scale; SLS = single leg stance test; TUG = timed “Up-and-Go” test; The possible range for the AOFAS score was 0–100; BoNT-A = Botulinum toxin type A; HA = Hyaluronate; A.M.D. = Adjusted mean difference; CI = Confidence interval.
  2. aHigher scores represent worse pain or function.; bANCOVA for comparing two groups in each posttest.
  3. *p < 0.05.