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Table 1 Summary of studies included in the review

From: The effectiveness of lasers in the treatment of onychomycosis: a systematic review

Author(s) Study type N of subjects (Nails) (Fingernails)* Laser Diagnostic criteria Max. follow up period Study endpoint
Carney et al. [26] Case Series 10 (18) 1064 nm Nd:YAG (short Pulse). 1 treatment. Culture 24 weeks Decrease in area of nail visually affected measured with the Onychomycosis Severity Index (OSI) and negative cultures.
Hees et al. [37] Comparative study 10 (20) 1064 nm (long v. short pulse) on each hallux 2 treatments over 4 weeks (side by side comparison). Histology 36 weeks Decrease in area of nail visually affected measured with the Onychomycosis Severity Index (OSI). Negative histology & cultures.
Hochman [28] Case Series 8 (12) (1)* 1064 nm (short pulse). 2 or 3 treatments, 3 weeks apart. Culture or PAS 24 weeks Negative fungal cultures.
Hollmig et al. [29] RCT 27 (125) 1064 Nd:YAG. 2 Treatments 2 weeks apart versus control. Culture or PAS 52 weeks Negative cultures and measured clearance at 3 months for all subjects, and repeated clearance measurement at 12 months for those treated with laser.
Kalokasidis et al. [30] Case Series 131 (unknown) 1064 nm/532 Q switched Nd:YAG. 2 treatments, 30 days apart. Microscopy & Culture 12 weeks Decrease in area of nail visually affected measured with the Onychomycosis Severity Index (OSI) and negative cultures.
Kimura et al. [31] Case Series 13 (37) Nd:YAG 1064 nm (long Pulse) 2–3 treatments, 4 weeks apart. Microscopy Up to 24 weeks Improvements in nail turbidity score and, negative culture if nail was 100% improved in turbidity score.
Landsman et al. [25] RCT 36 (37) 870 nm/930 nm laser or sham control device. 4 treatments over 60 days. Culture or PAS 24 weeks Decrease in affected nail area (clearance) and negative culture or PAS stain.
Lim et al. [32] Case Series 24 (unknown) CO2 laser. 3 treatments at 4 weeks plus topical treatment. Microscopy 24 weeks Decrease in affected nail surface area and negative microscopy.
Moon et al. [33] Case Series 13 (43) (12)* 1064 nm Nd:YAG (long pulse). 5 treatments at 4 week intervals. Microscopy & Culture 24 weeks Decrease in affected nail surface area and negative microscopy.
Noguichi et al. [34] Case Series 12 (12) 1064 nm Nd:YAG (long Pulse) 3 treatments at 4 week intervals. Microscopy or PCR or culture 24 weeks Decrease in nail surface area affected and negative microscopy.
Waibel et al. [35] Comparative study 21 (21) 1064 nm ND:YAG v. 1319 nm v. Broadband light. 4 treatments at one week apart. Culture & PAS 24 weeks Negative fungal culture.
Zhang et al. [36] Comparative study 33 (154) (18)* 1064 nm Nd:YAG (long pulse) Either 4 OR 8 treatments - one week apart. Microscopy & Culture 24 weeks Negative culture and measured decrease in affected nail surface area.