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Table 4 Summary of the study that investigated the effects in-shoe wedges provide during cycling

From: The effect of foot orthoses and in-shoe wedges during cycling: a systematic review

Author Participants Shoe, cleat and pedal characteristics Intervention Measures collected Study design Outcomes
Dinsdale & Williams, 2010. [4] Six untrained males with a forefoot varus. There was no report of shoe, cleat and pedal characteristics that each participant used. Participants were tested with and without a forefoot varus wedge from commercial company, Specialized Bicycle Components. The size of the varus wedge (ranged between 1–4 degree) was customised to the size of each individual’s forefoot varus. Mean power production, maximum power production, and anaerobic fatigue index. Non-randomised, repeated measures, non-controlled study. No significant difference in mean power production, maximum power production and anaerobic fatigue index (p = 0.10, p = 0.21, p = 0.24 respectively) between the two conditions.
Mean age: 24.0 years (±5.0)
Mean height: 178.0 cm (±5.0)
Mean mass: 79.7 kg (±8.1)
Body fat: 10.3% (±3.2)
  Forefoot varus: 6.1° (±1.7)      
  1. Note: All available statistical data (i.e. mean differences, confidence intervals, p values) from the studies have been provided. All available information on shoe, pedal, cleat, and wedges used by participants have also been provided.