Skip to main content

Table 1 CSA and calculated maximum muscle force of each muscle

From: Maximum toe flexor muscle strength and quantitative analysis of human plantar intrinsic and extrinsic muscles by a magnetic resonance imaging technique

  CSA (cm2) Fmax (N)
Intrinsic muscle 14.45 ± 3.25 217–361
MED 5.87 ± 1.34 88–147
LAT 6.06 ± 1.58 91–151
ADH 2.51 ± 0.74 38–63
Extrinsic muscle 6.16 ± 1.38 92–154
FHL 5.23 ± 1.17 78–131
FDL 0.93 ± 0.42 14–23
  1. CSA of each plantar intrinsic and extrinsic muscle, and their calculated maximum muscle force (Fmax). All data are expressed as means ± standard deviation (S.D.).
  2. MED: medial parts of plantar intrinsic muscles, LAT: lateral parts of plantar intrinsic muscles, ADH:adductor hallucis muscle, FHL: flexor hallucis longus muscle , and FDL: flexor digitorum longus muscle.