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Table 6 Outcomes and device review categories of FOs where statistically significant SMDs were observed^ (in descending effect size) (during walking unless otherwise noted)

From: Foot orthoses for adults with flexible pes planus: a systematic review

Study Level of evidence SMD 95% CI Domain Specific outcome Device Difference in mean
Otman et al. [50] III -4.11 -5.24 to -2.98 Physical function ↓ energy cost at 1.34 m/s, 0 incline (ml.kg.min-1) NA 1.14
Redmond et al. [44] IV 1.13 0.49 to 1.77 Kinetics ↑ force-time integral (midfoot) (N/s) A 284.60
Mündermann et al. [47] IV -0.94* -1.58 to -0.30 Kinetics ↓ peak loading rate (N/s)* A 10.50
Zammit and Payne [42] IV -0.93 -1.55 to -0.30 Pain ↓ FHSQ pain subscale following 4 weeks of use (%) NA 21.00
Mündermann et al. [47] IV -0.90* -1.54 to -0.26 Rearfoot kinematics ↓ peak foot eversion (°) * C 2.30
Hurd et al. [51] IV -0.78* -1.52 to -0.03 Kinetics ↓ peak RF eversion moments (Nm.kg-1) * A 0.52
Mündermann et al. [47] IV -0.75 -1.38 to -0.13 Kinetics ↓ peak ankle inversion moment (Nm)* C 6.00
Murley et al. [40] IV -0.76 -1.29 to -0.24 Physical function ↓ TP EMG RMS amplitude (initial) (%) B 21.93
Zammit and Payne [42] IV -0.76 -1.37 to -0.14 Physical function ↓ FHSQ function subscale following 4 weeks of use (%) NA 20.40
Johanson et al. [49] IV -0.72 -1.33 to -0.11 Rearfoot kinematics ↓ peak RF eversion (°) A 2.15
Mündermann et al. [47] IV -0.68 -1.30 to -0.06 Kinetics ↓ peak loading rate (N/s)* B 7.70
Redmond et al. [44] IV -0.65 -1.26 to -0.04 Kinetics ↓ force-time integral (lateral FF) (N/s) A 337.80
-0.65 -1.25 to -0.04 Kinetics ↓ force-time integral (medial FF) (N/s) A 128.20
0.63 0.02 to 1.24 Kinetics ↑ force at midfoot (N) A 38.90
Murley et al. [40] IV -0.58 -1.10 to -0.07 Physical function ↓ TP EMG peak amplitude (initial) (%) B 19.43
Murley et al. [40] IV -0.55 -1.07 to -0.04 Physical function ↑ PL EMG peak amplitude (midstance +) (%) B 21.05
Murley et al. [40] IV -0.54 -1.06 to -0.03 Physical function ↑ PL EMG RMS amplitude (midstance +) (%) B 18.66
  1. SMD values to the negative favour the FO condition over the no-FO condition.
  2. FO – foot orthoses, RF – rearfoot, EMG – electromyography, TP – tibialis posterior, PL – peroneus longus, RMS – root mean square, FHSQ – foot health status questionnaire, NA – not applicable, *outcomes observed during running. ^Rome and Brown [48] SMDs unavailable.