Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 5 Relevant outcome measures related to changes in: physical function (significant SMD results are bolded) – outcomes are measured during walking unless otherwise noted

From: Foot orthoses for adults with flexible pes planus: a systematic review

Study Activity Outcome No FO (mean ± SD) Device FO (mean ± SD)
Rome and Brown [48] Quiet standing Mean of the 300 balance points measured over 30 seconds (%) 49.40*^ NA 46.10*^
Medial to lateral sway - rate of deviation from the mean balance over 30 seconds (%) 1.90*^ NA 1.30*^
Anterior to posterior sway - rate of deviation from the mean balance over 30 seconds (%) 4.60*^ NA 4.80*^
Otman et al. [50] Walking on treadmill at 1.34 m/s Energy cost (ml/kg/min) 13.90* NA 12.76*
Murley et al. [40] Over-ground walking (self-selected ± 5%) TP EMG peak amplitude (initial contact and loading)% 101.91 (33.9) A 89.51 (36.8)
B 82.48 (31.8)
TP EMG RMS amplitude (initial contact and loading)% 101.94 (30.9) A 89.37 (33.6)
B 80.01 (25.7)
TP EMG peak amplitude (midstance, terminal and pre-swing) (% of gait cycle) 90.96 (28.8) A 89.62 (22.2)
B 87.34 (27.3)
TP EMG RMS amplitude (midstance, terminal and pre-swing)% 89.60 (24.1) A 86.92 (17.83)
B 85.84 (23.9)
PL EMG peak amplitude (initial contact and loading)% 80.16 (35.6) A 84.70 (42.1)
B 90.48 (47.3)
PL EMG RMS amplitude (initial contact and loading)% 79.44 (27.6) A 84.25 (37.5)
B 98.10 (44.6)
PL EMG peak amplitude (midstance, terminal and pre-swing) (% of gait cycle) 62.71 (32.6) A 67.78 (33.9)
B 83.76 (41.9)
PL EMG RMS amplitude (midstance, terminal and pre-swing)% 71.90 (39.9) A 79.86 (46.0)
B 96.07 (47.9)
TA EMG peak amplitude (initial contact and loading)% 116.32 (15.8) A 113.49 (15.3)
B 111.50 (17.4)
TA EMG RMS amplitude (initial contact and loading)% 122.02 (19.8) A 119.79 (22.0)
B 113.00 (22.3)
TP EMG time of peak amplitude (initial contact and loading) (% of gait cycle) 10.94 (1.7) A 11.37 (2.1)
B 11.10 (2.2)
TP EMG time of peak amplitude (midstance, terminal and pre-swing) (% of gait cycle) 44.95 (4.3) A 44.92 (3.69)
B 45.55 (4.1)
PL EMG time of peak amplitude (initial contact and loading) (% of gait cycle) 10.65 (3.4) A 10.52 (3.5)
B 10.23 (4.6)
PL EMG time of peak amplitude (midstance, terminal and pre-swing) (% of gait cycle) 51.65 (7.0) A 50.55 (7.91)
B 50.26 (7.61)
TA EMG time of peak amplitude (initial contact and loading) (% of gait cycle) 6.63 (1.4) A 6.28 (1.3)
B 6.39 (1.4)
Zammit and Payne [42] FHSQ reported at baseline and 4 weeks Increase in FHSQ function subscale (increase in function) 64.94 (24.0)* NA 85.32 (17.7)*
Murley and Bird [40] Over-ground walking (self-selected speed) PL EMG amplitude (% MVIC) 88.00 (26.5) A 98.00 (32.9)
B 107.00 (35.8)
C 99.00 (32.6)
TA EMG amplitude (% MVIC) 122.00 (38.4) A 123.00 (42.2)
B 129.00 (43.1)
C 125.00 (30.0)
Soleus EMG amplitude (% MVIC) 256.60 (89.6) A 251.93 (95.7)
B 255.70 (94.5)
C 260.92 (98.4)
Chen et al. [39] Over-ground walking (1.09 ± 0.11 m/s) Velocity (cm/s) 108.57 (11.3) NA 109.39 (11.1)
Cadence (steps/min) 103.98 (6.8) NA 104.73 (5.8)
Step width(cm) 15.44 (5.2) NA 15.44 (5.0)
Step length(cm) 63.09 (4.9) NA 61.81 (4.4)
Stance time (%) 63.72 (1.7) NA 63.93 (1.9)
  1. FO – foot orthoses, EMG – electromyography, TP – tibialis posterior, PL – peroneus longus, TA – tibialis anterior, RMS – root mean square, MVIC – maximum voluntary isometric contraction, FHSQ – foot health status questionnaire, NA – not applicable, N/A – not available, *No FO condition was prior to orthoses dispense, the FO condition was following four weeks of orthoses use, ^ Median results and significance tabled as per original article– means and standard deviations unavailable.