From: Foot orthoses for adults with flexible pes planus: a systematic review

Study | Activity | Outcome | No FO (mean ± SD) | Device | FO (mean ± SD) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Mündermann et al. [47] | Over-ground running (4.0 ± 0.2 m/s) | Vertical impact peak (N) | 1499.10 (255.6) | A | 1352.30 (233.6) |

B | 1400.40 (242.5) | ||||

C | 1519.40 (265.9) | ||||

Peak loading rate (N/s) | 52.50 (11.1) | A |
42.0 (10.9)
| ||

B |
44.8 (11.1)
| ||||

C | 53.5 (11.9) | ||||

Redmond et al. [44] | Over-ground walking (self-selected speed) | Peak force (heel) (N) | 544.50 (104.3) | A | 501.90 (97.3) |

B | 543.80 (100.6) | ||||

Peak force (midfoot) (N) | 195.30 (62.7) | A |
234.20 (58.8)
| ||

B | 156.20 (73.9) | ||||

Peak force (lateral FF) (N) | 426.90 (12.1) | A | 396.90 (110.3) | ||

B | 429.90 (122.0) | ||||

Peak force (medial FF) (N) | 188.50 (62.9) | A | 173.20 (65.4) | ||

B | 190.00 (72.2) | ||||

Peak force (hallux) (N) | 148.90 (63.1) | A | 161.40 (54.9) | ||

B | 159.90 (53.9) | ||||

Force-time integral (heel) (N/s) | 1436.20 (462.2) | A | 1285.00 (385.3) | ||

B | 1488.90 (441.1) | ||||

Force-time integral (midfoot) (N/s) | 527.70 (224.4) | A |
812.30 (267.0)
| ||

B | 454.40 (253.5) | ||||

Force-time integral (lateral FF) (N/s) | 1394.70 (575.1) | A |
1056.90 (436.3)
| ||

B | 1317.00 (520.5) | ||||

Force-time integral (medial FF) (N/s) | 468.50 (212.1) | A |
340.30 (175.9)
| ||

B | 423.50 (202.5) | ||||

Force-time integral (hallux) (N/s) | 294.90 (141.5) | A | 304.60 (155.7) | ||

B | 317.70 (145.3) | ||||

Mündermann et al. [47] | Over-ground running (4.0 ± 0.2 m/s) |
Peak ankle inversion moment (Nm.kg^{-1})
| 0.47 (0.1) | A | 0.40 (0.1) |

B | 0.43 (0.1) | ||||

C |
0.38 (0.1)
| ||||

Time of ankle inversion moment (% of gait cycle) | 41.00 (5.5) | A | 39.90 (6.5) | ||

B | 41.40 (6.7) | ||||

C | 40.20 (5.5) | ||||

Hurd et al. [51] | Over-ground walking (1.2 m/s ± 5%) |
Peak RF moment (Nm.kg^{-1})
| 0.78 (0.4) | A | 0.74 (0.5) |

B | 0.88 (0.3) | ||||

Mean RF moment (Nm.kg^{-1})
| 0.04 (0.4) | A | -0.18 (0.5) | ||

B | 0.19 (0.5) | ||||

Over-ground running (1.7 m/s ± 5%) |
Peak RF moment (Nm.kg^{-1})
| 1.75 (0.7) | A |
1.23 (0.6)
| |

B | 1.76 (0.7) | ||||

Mean RF moment (Nm.kg^{-1})
| 0.71 (1.0) | A | 0.09 (1.0) | ||

B | 0.92 (0.8) |