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Table 4 Relevant outcome measures related to the domain of kinetics (force and joint moment change) (significant SMD results are bolded) –during walking unless otherwise noted

From: Foot orthoses for adults with flexible pes planus: a systematic review

Study Activity Outcome No FO (mean ± SD) Device FO (mean ± SD)
Mündermann et al. [47] Over-ground running (4.0 ± 0.2 m/s) Vertical impact peak (N) 1499.10 (255.6) A 1352.30 (233.6)
B 1400.40 (242.5)
C 1519.40 (265.9)
Peak loading rate (N/s) 52.50 (11.1) A 42.0 (10.9)
B 44.8 (11.1)
C 53.5 (11.9)
Redmond et al. [44] Over-ground walking (self-selected speed) Peak force (heel) (N) 544.50 (104.3) A 501.90 (97.3)
B 543.80 (100.6)
Peak force (midfoot) (N) 195.30 (62.7) A 234.20 (58.8)
B 156.20 (73.9)
Peak force (lateral FF) (N) 426.90 (12.1) A 396.90 (110.3)
B 429.90 (122.0)
Peak force (medial FF) (N) 188.50 (62.9) A 173.20 (65.4)
B 190.00 (72.2)
Peak force (hallux) (N) 148.90 (63.1) A 161.40 (54.9)
B 159.90 (53.9)
Force-time integral (heel) (N/s) 1436.20 (462.2) A 1285.00 (385.3)
B 1488.90 (441.1)
Force-time integral (midfoot) (N/s) 527.70 (224.4) A 812.30 (267.0)
B 454.40 (253.5)
Force-time integral (lateral FF) (N/s) 1394.70 (575.1) A 1056.90 (436.3)
B 1317.00 (520.5)
Force-time integral (medial FF) (N/s) 468.50 (212.1) A 340.30 (175.9)
B 423.50 (202.5)
Force-time integral (hallux) (N/s) 294.90 (141.5) A 304.60 (155.7)
B 317.70 (145.3)
Mündermann et al. [47] Over-ground running (4.0 ± 0.2 m/s) Peak ankle inversion moment (Nm.kg-1) 0.47 (0.1) A 0.40 (0.1)
B 0.43 (0.1)
C 0.38 (0.1)
Time of ankle inversion moment (% of gait cycle) 41.00 (5.5) A 39.90 (6.5)
B 41.40 (6.7)
C 40.20 (5.5)
Hurd et al. [51] Over-ground walking (1.2 m/s ± 5%) Peak RF moment (Nm.kg-1) 0.78 (0.4) A 0.74 (0.5)
B 0.88 (0.3)
Mean RF moment (Nm.kg-1) 0.04 (0.4) A -0.18 (0.5)
B 0.19 (0.5)
Over-ground running (1.7 m/s ± 5%) Peak RF moment (Nm.kg-1) 1.75 (0.7) A 1.23 (0.6)
B 1.76 (0.7)
Mean RF moment (Nm.kg-1) 0.71 (1.0) A 0.09 (1.0)
B 0.92 (0.8)
  1. FO – foot orthoses, DF – dorsiflexion, PF – plantarflexion, RF – rearfoot, NA – not applicable.