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Table 3 Relevant outcome measures related to the domain of rearfoot kinematics (significant SMD results are bolded) - walking unless otherwise noted

From: Foot orthoses for adults with flexible pes planus: a systematic review

Study Activity Outcome No FO (mean ± SD) Device FO (mean ± SD)
Zifchock and Davis [41] Over-ground walking (2.0 m/s) in low arch cohort Peak RF eversion (°) 4.31 (2.5) A 5.45 (5.1)
B 4.38 (2.2)
RF eversion excursion (°) 10.60 (2.8) A 9.47 (1.9)
B 9.68 (1.8)
Peak RF eversion velocity (°/s) 155.65 (46.9) A 141.50 (47.2)
B 144.78 (46.5)
Mündermann et al. [47] Over-ground running (4.0 ± 0.2 m/s) in recreational runners with everted rearfoot. Peak foot eversion (°) * 16.00 (2.3) A 16.90 (3.6)
B 16.60 (2.5)
C 13.70 (2.7)
Peak foot eversion velocity (°/s) * 464.70 (155.2) A 484.40 (141.1)
B 476.80 (145.0)
C 392.90 (135.0)
Cobb et al. [52] Over-ground walking (1.3 to 1.4 m/s) in low arch cohort RF eversion excursion (terminal stance (°) 0.85 (0.8) A 0.28 (0.5)
0.02 (0.4) B 0.18 (0.3)
Hurd et al. [51] Over-ground walking (1.2 m/s ± 5%) in forefoot varus cohort RF eversion (initial contact) (°) -1.60 (3.6) A -1.00 (3.1)
B -0.30 (4.0)
Peak RF eversion (loading) (°) -3.40 (3.7) A -2.80 (5.6)
B -2.70 (5.3)
Over-ground running (1.7 m/s ± 5%) in forefoot varus cohort RF eversion (initial contact) (°) * -3.30 (4.0) A -2.50 (5.0)
B -2.30 (4.5)
Peak RF eversion (loading) (°) * -5.60 (3.5) A -5.30 (10.5)
B -5.60 (11.1)
Johanson et al. [49] Treadmill walking (1.11 m/s) in forefoot varus cohort Peak RF eversion (°) 0.80 (3.0) A -1.35 (2.8)
B -0.88 (3.3)
C -0.44 (3.3)
D -0.36 (3.0)
  1. FO – foot orthoses, RF – rearfoot, FF – forefoot, *during running.