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Table 2 Relevant outcome measures related to the domain of pain (significant SMD results are bolded)

From: Foot orthoses for adults with flexible pes planus: a systematic review

Study Activity Outcome No FO (mean ± SD) Device FO (mean ± SD)
Esterman and Pilotto [34] 10 week basic air force training recorded at baseline and 8 weeks VAS 0 – 10, pain previous 24 hours following 8 weeks of FO use 1.14 (2.4) NA 0.68 (1.5)
Zammit and Payne [42] FHSQ reported at baseline and 4 weeks Increase in FHSQ pain subscale following 4 weeks of FO use (reduction in pain) 49.84 (24.8) NA 70.86 (19.5)
  1. VAS – visual analogue scale, FO – foot orthoses, FHSQ – foot health status questionnaire, NA – not applicable.