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Table 3 Overview of included studies regarding components of chronic ankle instability investigated

From: Systematic review of chronic ankle instability in children

Component of CAI investigated Author Participant number Participant characteristics Measurement Outcome
Perceived instability Hiller et al.[17] 116 Adolescent dancers CAIT 71% of sprainers unstable
Hollwarth et al.[19] 96 Severe ankle trauma Self report 31% had complaints
Marchi et al.[20] 220 Moderate-severe ankle injury Medical report 42% had complaints 3 yrs post injury
54 23% had complaints 12 yrs post injury
Steffen et al.[22] 1430 Adolescent soccer players FAOS Lower function in previously injured than with no previous injury at baseline (mean diff = −25 (95% CI = −28.5 to -21.9)
Timm et al.[24] 99 Patients with ankle injury Medical report 34% had complaints
44% of overweight children (BMI > 85th percentile)
Mechanical instability Hiller et al.[17] 116 Adolescent dancers Mod ant drawer 37% Right, 47% Left of all ankles moderate to very lax
Hollwarth et al.[19] 96 Severe ankle trauma X-ray 18% had ligament avulsion
Clinical tests 39% had pathologic clinical findings (as defined by authors)
Talar tilt >5° 42% of total had abnormal talar tilt
Recurrent sprain Hiller et al.[17] 116 Adolescent dancers Self report 22% had ≥2 sprains
Soderman et al.[21] 153 Adolescent soccer players Medical report 56% of sprainers had recurrent sprain
Swenson et al.[23] 13755 injuries High school students Medical report 25% of all recurrent injuries were ankle injuries
Timm et al.[24] 199 Patients with ankle injury Self report 26% of overweight (BMI > 85th percentile) and16% normal weight reinjured
Tyler et al.[25] 152 High school footballers Medical report 15 non-contact ankle sprains incurred and 9 (60%) were re-sprains of the same ankle
  Weir & Watson [26] 266 Physical education students Self report 100% overuse ankle injuries were re-injuries
  1. KEY: BMI = Body Mass Index, CAI = Chronic Ankle Instability, CAIT = Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool, CI = Confidence Interval, FAOS = Foot and Ankle Outcome Score, Mean Diff = Mean Difference.