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Table 1 Comparison of ankle inversion kinematic variables (mean ± SD) in wearing high-top (HS) and low-top shoes (LS) in four surface conditions

From: The effect of high-top and low-top shoes on ankle inversion kinematics and muscle activation in landing on a tilted surface

Variables Shoe condition Surface condition
15°_Inv 30°_Inv 25°_Inv + 10°_PF 25°_Inv + 20°_PF
θ cont (°) HS 11.8 ± 5.1 13.2 ± 4.6 13.7 ± 5.3 12.4 ± 5.3
LS 12.4 ± 4.3 12.4 ± 5.3 12.2 ± 4.8 11.7 ± 5.5
θ max (°) HS 14.8 ± 6.3 28.3 ± 6.7* 23.6 ± 3.4* 23.9 ± 5.4*
LS 15.2 ± 5.3 29.3 ± 4.7* 25.0 ± 5.1* 25.7 ± 6.5*
θ t-max (ms) HS 48.3 ± 21.4 67.2 ± 43.2 56.0 ± 33.8 62.2 ± 34.1
LS 44.6 ± 26.8 76.1 ± 29.7 45.4 ± 39.9 55.2 ± 27.5
ROM (°) HS 2.4 ± 0.9 15.2 ± 6.1* 12.1 ± 4.4* 13.0 ± 6.1*
LS 2.7 ± 1.1 17.4 ± 5.7* 13.8 ± 5.5* 14.4 ± 3.7*
ω max (°/s) HS 62.9 ± 32.5 208.7 ± 112.9* 189.0 ± 109.0* 194.6 ± 106.2*
LS 61.5 ± 29.3 220.2 ± 125.6* 201.6 ± 115.2* 232.5 ± 127.0*
ω t-max (ms) HS 21.4 ± 12.5 33.7 ± 24.8 36.9 ± 22.3 34.0 ± 24.3
LS 24.3 ± 14.1 30.1 ± 20.4 32.1 ± 27.7 25.3 ± 18.4*
ω ave (°/s) HS 49.2 ± 12.5 150.6 ± 60.2* 142.8 ± 52.4* 148.6 ± 64.5*
LS 46.6 ± 16.3 151.3 ± 76.9* 150.2 ± 69.9* 158.3 ± 77.6*
  1. θ cont, ankle inversion angle at contact; θ max, maximum ankle inversion angle; θ t-max, time to the maximum ankle inversion angle; ROM, ankle inversion range of motion; ω max, maximum ankle inversion angular velocity after foot contact; ω t-max, time to the maximum ankle inversion angular velocity; ω ave, average ankle inversion angular velocity; 15°_Inv, 15° inversion; 30°_Inv, 30° inversion; 25°_Inv + 10°_PF, combined 25° inversion and 10° plantarflexion; 25°_Inv + 20°_PF, combined 25° inversion and 20° plantarflexion.
  2. * significantly different from 15°_Inv in the same shoe condition (p < 0.05).