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Table 2 Walking speeds in m/s in all gait conditions, for the control group (Contr.) and for patients (Pat.) pre- and postoperatively*

From: Foot kinematics in walking on a level surface and on stairs in patients with hallux rigidus before and after cheilectomy

Speed   Contr. Pat. preop. Pat. postop. Pat. preop. vs. contr. Pat. postop. vs. contr. Pat. postop. vs. preop.
  Mean  SD Mean  SD Mean  SD P-value Cohens’s d Effect size r P-value Cohens’s d Effect size r P-value Cohens’s d Effect size r
Level 1.38 0.15 1.18 0.07 1.20 0.12 0.034 1.71 0.65 0.021 1.33 0.55 0.484   
Up stairs 0.52 0.06 0.50 0.05 0.49 0.05 0.329    0.242    0.176   
Down stairs 0.55 0.05 0.53 0.05 0.48 0.05 0.221    0.004 1.4 0.57 0.043 -1.0 -0.45
  1. *Mean and standard deviation (SD); p -values are given for Mann-Whitney U test (patients vs. controls) and Wilcoxon test (postoperatively (postop.) vs. preoperatively (preop.)), and marked in bold if significant on the level of alpha = 0.05.