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Table 1 Intersegmental foot range of motion (in degrees) for the control group (Contr.) and the patients (Pat.) before (preop.) and after (postop.) the operation for all gait conditions (level, up and down stairs)*

From: Foot kinematics in walking on a level surface and on stairs in patients with hallux rigidus before and after cheilectomy

    Contr. Pat. preop. Pat. postop. Pat. preop. vs. contr. Pat. postop. vs. contr. Pat. postop. vs. preop.
Level Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD P-value Cohen’s d Effect size r P-value Cohen’s d Effect size r P-value Cohen’s d Effect size r
Hallux dorsi-/plantarflexion 49.3 6.4 37.4 8.3 34.8 9.7 0.006 -1.61 -0.63 0.004 -1.76 -0.66 0.036 -0.29 -0.14
Hallux ab-/adduction 6.4 1.8 3.9 1.4 4.4 1.6 0.005 -1.55 -0.61 0.017 -1.17 -0.51 0.674   
Talocrural motion (HFMM) 22.5 5.3 16.7 3.1 17.5 3.4 0.026 -1.34 -0.56 0.026 -1.23 -0.49 0.327   
Ankle motion (conventional) 33.5 6.5 24.8 6.6 24.8 6.0 0.013 -1.33 -0.55 0.013 -1.39 -0.57 0.575   
Subtalar motion 10.2 2.6 8.7 2.4 9.8 4.1 0.215    0.804    0.327   
Medial arch (cavus/planus) 18.3 2.6 13.8 5.6 14.1 5.9 0.099    0.090    0.735   
Medial arch inclination (med./lat.) 15.1 4.4 14.3 5.6 14.8 6.7 0.934    0.869    0.779   
Midfoot-ankle pro-/supination 12.2 2.6 11.4 3.9 13.4 6.2 0.563    0.741    0.123   
Fore-midfoot pro-/supination 6.8 2.0 4.4 2.0 6.3 3.0 0.032 -1.20 -0.52 0.248    0.025 0.75 0.35
Fore-hindfoot ab-/adduction 8.9 2.2 6.2 3.0 6.3 2.3 0.048 -1.03 -0.46 0.039 -1.16 -0.50 0.484   
Metatarsal I-V angle 10.7 1.9 10.1 2.1 10.5 2.2 0.409    0.509    0.484   
Up stairs                
Hallux dorsi-/plantarflexion 33.6 7.0 27.7 7.8 27.3 7.8 0.189    0.113    0.735   
Hallux ab-/adduction 6.3 2.4 8.2 4.8 4.5 1.4 0.497    0.113    0.063   
Talocrural motion (HFMM) 27.9 3.6 26.8 5.7 26.9 6.6 0.684    0.892    0.866   
Ankle motion (conventional) 37.9 4.9 33.8 7.3 35.1 8.8 0.221    0.497    0.310   
Subtalar motion 10.7 2.3 9.7 3.3 10.8 4.3 0.618    0.964    0.499   
Medial arch (cavus/planus) 15.8 3.5 12.8 4.3 13.0 4.8 0.077    0.258    0.866   
Medial arch inclination (med./lat.) 13.5 4.3 15.8 4.0 12.8 4.9 0.221    0.821    0.091   
Midfoot-ankle pro-/supination 11.5 3.4 11.2 3.6 12.9 6.9 0.751    0.821    0.499   
Fore-midfoot pro-/supination 6.3 1.6 4.2 1.9 5.1 2.8 0.016 -1.20 -0.51 0.160    0.176   
Fore-hindfoot ab-/adduction 6.4 2.5 5.5 2.3 6.0 3.4 0.441    0.821    0.310   
Metatarsal I-V angle 11.2 2.4 12.4 3.5 11.4 1.5 0.497    0.751    0.398   
Down stairs                
Hallux dorsi-/plantarflexion 39.5 8.3 31.3 4.0 29.7 8.6 0.021 -1.26 -0.53 0.026 1.16 0.50 0.866   
Hallux ab-/adduction 7.4 2.7 5.1 1.4 4.2 1.6 0.094    0.008 1.44 0.59 0.398   
Talocrural motion (HFMM) 46.5 4.8 45.8 7.1 44.9 5.8 0.618    0.258    1.000   
Ankle motion (conventional) 61.2 5.5 55.4 7.1 55.9 5.9 0.077    0.052    1.000   
Subtalar motion 11.6 3.7 10.9 2.6 9.3 2.9 0.684    0.221    0.063   
Medial arch (cavus/planus) 21.3 3.4 17.1 4.4 18.2 2.9 0.077    0.113    0.398   
Medial arch inclination (med./lat.) 15.4 5.0 15.4 5.2 13.4 5.6 0.964    0.390    0.043 -0.37 -0.18
Midfoot-ankle pro-/supination 13.6 3.9 11.6 3.4 12.9 3.6 0.441    0.964    0.176   
Fore-midfoot pro-/supination 7.8 1.4 4.8 1.1 5.7 1.2 0.002 -2.38 -0.77 0.010 -1.61 -0.63 0.063   
Fore-hindfoot ab-/adduction 5.4 1.3 5.7 1.7 4.9 0.9 0.751    0.390    0.237   
Metatarsal I-V angle 12.7 3.1 12.4 3.0 11.6 2.7 0.751    0.441    0.866   
  1. *Mean and standard deviation (SD); p -values are given for group comparisons and repeated measures, respectively, and marked in bold if significant on the level of alpha = 0.05.