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Table 3 Mean, p value and 95% confidence interval for the difference between the angle means over the stance phase for barefoot and thong while walking and jogging

From: Effect of thong style flip-flops on children’s barefoot walking and jogging kinematics

    WALK   JOG  
Phase Joint Plane Barefoot Thong p;<0.05 95% CI Barefoot Thong p;<0.05 95% CI
Contact Ankle Sagittal 1.1(8.3) 12.0(12.2) 0.005* −17.8, -4.04 13.0(7.6) 21.1(10.4) 0.005* −13.2, -2.98
Frontal −7.5(3.6) −10.0(5.8) 0.694 −3.23, 2.25, −4.7(4.3) −3.6(4.7) 0.31 −3.30, 1.14
Transverse 1.6(4.7) 1.7(3.2) 0.957 −3.15, 3.00 3.6(5.0) 1.4(5.8) 0.194 −1.30, 5.77
Midfoot Sagittal −3.8(6.5) −9.2(12.2) 0.090 −1.00, 11.9 −3.5(6.5) −6.6(11.9) 0.203 −1.92, 8.13
Frontal 2.0 (2.9) 0.6 (5.0) 0.181 −0.750, 3.55 1.2(3.6) −2.6(6.5 0.042* 0.15, 7.40
Transverse −3.6(3.6) 1.0(4.0) 0.441 −5.21, 2.42 −0.8(4.3) 2.2(4.3) 0.075 −6.30, 0.35
Hallux Sagittal 6.2(4.3) 3.7(5.4) 0.203 −1.57, 6.65 4.3(4.7) 3.3(6.5) 0.694 −4.41, 6.41
Midstance Ankle Sagittal 7.6(5.8) 12.6(10.4) 0.124 −11.44, 1.56 20.3(5.4) 24.4(9.0) 0.099 −9.02, 0.88
Frontal −3.8(3.6) −4.2(4.7) 0.672 −1.47, 2.20 0.3(4.7) 1.0(4.7) 0.492 −2.94, 1.50
Transverse 4.1(4.3) 2.5(4.0) 0.315 −1.74, 4.96 6.4(5.8) 3.4(5.8) 0.069 −0.28, 6.40
Midfoot Sagittal −0.8(6.1) −7.4(12.6) 0.052 −0.065, 13.3 2.9(7.2) −2.2(12.6) 0.037* 0.370, 9.73
Frontal 3.6 (1.8) 2.2 (5.0) 0.231 −1.02, 3.83 2.0(4.3) −0.5(6.1) 0.140 −0.908, 5.71
Transverse 0.5(3.2) 1.9(4.7) 0.421 −5.21, 2.33 0.1(4.7) 2.8(4.0) 0.085 −5.82, 0.435
Hallux Sagittal 1.1(2.9) 1.2(4.7) 0.926 −2.99, 2.74 −0.3(3.2) 0.4(4.7) 0.664 −4.26, 2.81
Propulsive Ankle Sagittal 12.4(8.3) 16.4(11.5) 0.282 −3.74, 11.8 18.0(6.5) 21.0(10.4) 0.242 −8.12, 2.27
Frontal −6.8(5.0) −6.8(5.0) 0.552 −1.44, 2.56 −3.6(4.3) −3.0(4.7) 0.536 −2.68, 1.47
Transverse 0.1(5.4) −1.3(4.3) 0.383 −1.97, 4.78 3.6(5.8) 0.8(6.1) 0.098 −0.591, 6.09
Midfoot Sagittal −3.4(7.2) −10.1(12.6) 0.044* 0.205, 13.3 −2.1(7.9) −7.5(11.9) 0.020* −9.84, -1.01
Frontal 2.5(1.8) 1.9(4.7) 0.645 −2.07, 3.18 1.8(4.0) −0.3(5.4) 0.153 −0.908, 5.13
Transverse −0.7(3.2) 0.5(4.7) 0.524 −5.00, 2.69 −0.7(4.3) 1.7(3.6) 0.107 −5.37, 0.594
Hallux Sagittal 7.0(4.3) 6.0(6.8) 0.675 −3.89, 5.81 7.6(5.4) 5.4(4.3) 0.249 −1.77, 6.30
Stance Ankle Sagittal 9.1(6.8) 14.4(8.3) 0.122 −12.32, 1.66 17.6(6.1) 22.0(9.7) 0.070 −9.23, 0.416
Frontal −5.5(4.0) −5.8(5.0) 0.775 −1.68, 2.19 −2.8(4.3) −2.0(4.3) 0.426 −2.86, 1.29
Transverse 1.9(4.7) 0.7(4.0) 0.444 −2.11, 4.52 4.3(5.8) 1.7(5.8) 0.120 −0.798, 6.06
Midfoot Sagittal −2.5(6.5) −9.0 (13.0) 0.055 −0.156, 13.3 −1.1(7.2) −5.6(11.9) 0.051 −0.31, 9.17
Frontal 2.8(2.2) 1.7(4.7) 0.362 −1.37, 3.48 1.7(4.0) −0.9(5.8) 0.102 −0.596, 5.78
Transverse −0.2(3.2) 1.2(4.3) 0.435 −5.20, 2.39 −0.5(3.6) 2.2(4.0) 0.084 −5.65, 0.409
  Hallux Sagittal 1.1(2.9) 1.2(4.3) 0.926 −2.99, 2.74 4.9(4.3) 3.5(3.2) 0.384 −2.08, 5.08
  1. * indicates a significant difference compared to barefoot when p < 0.05.
  2. Mean joint angles for ankle and midfoot sagittal, frontal and transverse planes and hallux sagittal plan during stance. Positive value indicates dorsiflexion, eversion and abduction; negative values indicate plantarflexion, inversion and adduction.