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Table 3 Ankle, knee and hip moments (mean ± SD)

From: A comparison of gait biomechanics of flip-flops, sandals, barefoot and shoes

Variables Barefoot Sandals Flip-flops Shoes F p
Peak ankle dorsiflexion moment in early stance (Nm/kg) 0.11 ± 0.04 0.13 ± 0.04* 0.11 ± 0.04# 0.16 ± 0.04*#& 9.7 0.008
Peak ankle plantarflexion moment (Nm/kg) -1.24 ± 0.21 -1.30 ± 0.13 -1.33 ± 0.13 -1.35 ± 0.09 1.5 0.230
Peak ankle inversion moment in late stance (Nm/kg) 0.29 ± 0.23 0.26 ± 0.22* 0.26 ± 0.22* 0.17 ± 0.10 6.4 0.026
Peak knee extension moment in early stance (Nm/kg) 0.49 ± 0.16 0.51 ± 0.10 0.50 ± 0.13 0.53 ± 0.13 0.7 0.567
Peak knee extension moment in late stance (Nm/kg) 0.40 ± 0.05 0.40 ± 0.04 0.41 ± 0.06 0.40 ± 0.06 0.4 0.744
1st peak knee abduction moment (Nm/kg) -0.40 ± 0.12 -0.42 ± 0.12 -0.41 ± 0.10 -0.41 ± 0.11 0.8 0.504
Peak hip flexion moment in late stance (Nm/kg) 0.63 ± 0.09 0.67 ± 0.11* 0.66 ± 0.10* 0.66 ± 0.11 9.5 0.007
  1. * significantly different from barefoot, # significantly different from sandals, and & significantly different from flip-flops. A positive moment refers to an ankle dorsiflexion moment, ankle inversion moment, knee extension moment, or hip flexion moment; a negative moment refers a plantarflexion moment or knee abduction moment.