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Table 2 Ankle, knee and hip angles (mean ± SD)

From: A comparison of gait biomechanics of flip-flops, sandals, barefoot and shoes

Variables Barefoot Sandals Flip-flops Shoes F p
Foot contact angle (°) 19.2 ± 3.4 24.9 ± 3.6* 25.5 ± 3.9* 29.5 ± 4.5*#& 27.6 < 0.001
Ankle contact angle (°) -3.9 ± 3.9 -0.1 ± 4.5* 0.4 ± 5.0* 3.7 ± 3.8*# 14.5 0.001
Ankle plantarflexion ROM in early stance (°) 8.0 ± 1.9 9.4 ± 1.7* 8.7 ± 1.4 11.8 ± 2.9*#& 17.3 0.001
Peak ankle dorsiflexion in late stance (°) 6.1 ± 4.1 4.6 ± 4.2* 5.2 ± 4.0* 11.3 ± 4.0*#& 10.6 0.009
Ankle eversion ROM (°) -4.9 ± 1.5 -5.1 ± 2.4 -5.4 ± 2.3 -6.5 ± 3.1 1.7 0.200
Knee contact angle (°) -8.0 ± 3.9 -6.3 ± 3.9* -6.3 ± 3.7* -5.2 ± 3.4* 7.8 0.001
Knee flexion ROM in stance (°) 39.9 ± 5.3 45.8 ± 4.8* 44.1 ± 4.7*# 46.7 ± 4.4*& 34.6 <0.001
Peak hip extension in stance (°) -10.5 ± 4.7 -11.8 ± 5.1 -11.3 ± 4.5 -12.5 ± 3.2 1.0 0.39
  1. * significantly different from barefoot, # significantly different from sandals, and & significantly different from flip-flops. Foot contact angle is defined as the angle between the foot and ground at heel strike, and a smaller foot angle refers to a more parallel angle of the foot relative to ground; a negative angle refers to plantarflexion and eversion for ankle, flexion for knee, and extension for hip.