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Table 1 Ground reaction force and center of pressure variables (mean ± SD)

From: A comparison of gait biomechanics of flip-flops, sandals, barefoot and shoes

Variables Barefoot Sandals Flip-flops Shoes F p
Stance time (s) 0.70 ± 0.02 0.74 ± 0.02* 0.73 ± 0.02* 0.77 ± 0.03*#& 50.6 0.0001
Peak vertical loading GRF (BW) 1.06 ± 0.04 1.11 ± 0.07 1.10 ± 0.02 1.08 ± 0.04 4.0 0.02
Loading Rate (BW/s) 7.96 ± 1.79 7.22 ± 1.54* 7.52 ± 2.61 5.69 ± 0.41*#& 7.6 0.01
Peak vertical pushoff GRF (BW) 1.11 ± 0.04 1.13 ± 0.06 1.11 ± 0.03 1.09 ± 0.05 1.1 0.33
Peak braking GRF (BW) -0.21 ± 0.03 -0.22 ± 0.05 -0.22 ± 0.05 -0.20 ± 0.04 1.4 0.27
Peak propulsive GRF (BW) 0.22 ± 0.03 0.21 ± 0.03 0.22 ± 0.02 0.19 ± 0.02*#& 8.3 0.0001
ML COP displacement ROM (cm) 5.5 ± 1.4 4.5 ± 1.1* 4.7 ± 1.2* 4.0 ± 1.0* 6.92 0.009
AP COP displacement ROM (cm) 22.1 ± 1.3 26.8 ± 1.6* 26.2 ± 2.1* 26.8 ± 2.2* 24.1 0.0001
  1. * significantly different from barefoot, # significantly different from sandals, and & significantly different from flip-flops.
  2. Loading rate: Peak vertical loading GRF/time (from contact); Peak braking (negative) GRF and peak propulsive (positive) GRF are anteroposterior GRFs; ML COP displacement ROM and AP COP displacement ROM: range of mediolateral and anteroposterior COP displacement during stance.