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Table 2 (a-l): The determinants and their effects on plantar pressures in diabetic patients with polyneuropathy depicted as β ^ (CI 95)

From: Lower leg muscle strengthening does not redistribute plantar load in diabetic polyneuropathy: a randomised controlled trial

  Preferred Imposed Preferred Imposed
  a. PP heel (kPa) b. PP heel (kPa) c. PP forefoot (kPa.s) d. PP forefoot (kPa.s)
Intercept 358.6 (120.0, 597.1)† 149.2 (−110.0, 408.3) 955.1 (396.6, 1513.5)‡ 706.4 (84.5, 1328.3)*
Age −2.3 (−5.1, .6) 0.1 (−3.2, 3.4) −4.6 (−11.4, 2.1) −1.4 (−9.2, 6.4)
Body mass 2.1 (.8, 3.4)† 3.0 (1.6, 4.3)‡ −1.1 (−2.0, 4.1) 2.1 (−1.2, 5.3)
Group (IG vs CG) 72.0 (33.7, 110.3)‡ 60.4 (20.9, 99.8)† 168 (82.8, 253.5)* 162.4 (70.9, 253.9)*
Time t = 0 vs 52 −45.8 (−66.2, -25.3)‡ −25.6 (−45.9, -5.3) −52.8 (−87.5, -18.0)† −55.7 (−96.8, -14.7)†
Time t = 12 vs 52 −23.7 (−45.1, -2.5)* −20.5 (−41.0, 0.1) −36.0 (−71.5, -.3)* −46.4 (−87.7, -5.2)*
Time t = 24 vs 52 −11.7 (−33.3, 9.9) −20.5 (−41.4, 0.4) −42.4 (−78.4, -6.4)* −55.4 (−97.4, -13.3)*
σ i 2 296.7 (237.7, 370.3)‡ 218.0 (169.9, 279.6)‡ 821.1 (655.7, 1028.2)‡ 871.6 (676.3, 1123.3)‡
σ b 0 2 868.2 (611.9, 1232.0)‡ 897.9 (623.8, 1292.4)‡ 5858.9 (4225.9, 8122.9)‡ 5848.5 (4084.7, 8373.8)‡
  e. PTI heel (kPa.s) f. PTI heel (kPa.s) g. PTI forefoot (kPa.s) h. PTI forefoot (kPa.s)
Intercept 3.6 (−21.8, 29.0) 31.9 (14.3, 49.3)‡ 8.2 (−8.0, 24.4) 25.3 (10.0, 40.6)†
Age .1 (−.2, .4) -.3 (−.6, -.1)† .2 (−.0, 0.4) -.8 (−.3, 1.2)
Body mass .3 (.1, .4)‡ .3 (.2, .4)‡ .3 (.2, .4)‡ .2 (.2, .3)‡
Group (IG vs CG) .7 (−3.3, 4.8) 1.3 (−1.5, 4.0) -.8 (−3.5, 1.8) 2.8 (.5, 5.1)
Time t = 0 vs 52 4.6 (2.6, 6.7)‡ -.3 (−2.0, 1.4) 2.0 (.4, 3.5)† −2.0 (−3.2, -0.9)‡
Time t = 12 vs 52 1.1 (−1.0, 3.3) -.4 (−2.2, 1.3) -.6 (−2.2, 1.1) −1.7 (−2.9, -.5)†
Time t = 24 vs 52 .9 (−1.3, 3.1) -.1 (−1.9, 1.6) -.8 (−2.5, .8) −0.8 (−1.9, .4)
σ i 2 3.0 (2.4, 3.7)‡ 1.6 (1.2, 2.0)‡ 1.7 ( 1.4, 2.2)‡ .7 (.5, .9)‡
σ b 0 2 10.3 (7.2, 15.6)‡ 3.5 (2.3, 5.2)‡ 3.7 (2.5, 5.5)‡ 3.2 (2.2, 4.7)‡
  i. tCOP (%) j. tCOP (%) k. F/R-ratio l. F/R-ratio
Intercept 33.16 (15.05, 51.28)‡ 51.58 (35.05, 68.11)‡ 1.31 (0.52, 2.09)† .93 (.07, 1.80)*
Age .03 (−.19, .25) -.26 (−.47, -.06)† .00 (−.01,.01) .01 (−.00, 0.02)
Body mass .09 (−.01, 0.19) 0.09 (0.01, 0.18)* -.00 (−.01, .00) -.00 (−.01, .01)
Group (IG vs CG) .26 (−2.64, 3.15) .12 (−2.48, 2.72) -.02 (−.15, .11) .01 (−.12, .15)
Time t = 0 vs 52 3.41 (1.92, 4.90)‡ 1.60 (−0.03, 3.22) -.11 (−.18, -.38)† -.06 (−.14, .021)
Time t = 12 vs 52 1.93 (.39, 3.48)* 1.07 (−.60, 2.74) -.08 (−.15, -.02)* -.07 (−.15, .019)
Time t = 24 vs 52 1.59 (.03, 3.16)* .83 (−.87, 2.53) -.06 (−.14, .01) -.03 (−.11, .06)
σ i 2 15.64 (12.53, 19.51)‡ 14.48 (11.31, 18.54)‡ 0.04 (0.03, 0.05)‡ .000 .04 (.03, .05)‡
σ b 0 2 51.49 (36.53, 72.58)‡ 30.95 (20.80, 46.04)‡ 0.09 (0.06, 0.13)‡ .000 .09 (.06, .13)‡
  1. Notes: Measurements were obtained for the intervention and control group (Group) at different time points (Time) and at two gait velocities, preferred and imposed (see text). The main estimated fixed (and random) effect parameters of the random intercept models are shown. β (95% CI) represent average changes in the outcome variables per unit increase for the continuous explanatory variables. For categorical variables, the estimates represent average changes with respect to the reference (control group, females, or follow-up measurement at t = 52 weeks). Effects of time are negative if baseline measurements were lower than during follow-up. Age was determined at onset of the study. Abbreviations and symbols: IG intervention group; CG control group; PP peak pressure; * = p ≤ 0.05, † = p ≤ 0.01, ‡ = p ≤ 0.001.