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Table 3 Comparison between the insole conditions for mean peak pressure, maximum force, and contact area (N = 26)

From: The effect of removing plugs and adding arch support to foam based insoles on plantar pressures in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy

ROI
Comparison between insole conditions Mean difference in mean peak pressure (kPa) and % change between conditions Mean difference in maximum force (% body weight) and % change between conditions Mean difference in contact area (cm2)and % change between conditions
Comparison Mean difference change # p-Value of post hoc test Mean difference change # p-Value of post hoc test Mean difference change # p-Value of post hoc test
1 vs. 2 41.1 −15.7% <0.001 0.2 −0.3% 0.671 0.3 +2.5% NA*
2 vs. 3 71.5 −32.3% <0.001 4 −12.2% 0.001 0.5 −4% NA*
3 vs. 4 14.3 −9.5% <0.001 2.6 −9% <0.001 0.2 +1.7% NA*
  Repeated measure ANOVA between conditions: p < 0.001 Repeated measure ANOVA between conditions: p < 0.001 Repeated measure ANOVA between conditions: p = 0.612
Non-ROI
Comparison Mean difference change # p-Value of post hoc test Mean difference change # p-Value of post hoc test Mean difference change # p-Value of post hoc test
1 vs. 2 15.2 −8.7% <0.001 0.2 −0.3% 0.880 0.1 +0.2% 0.862
2 vs. 3 3.6 +2.2% 0.408 3.8 +6.2% 0.004 0.8 +1.6% 0.169
3 vs. 4 4.2 −2.5% 0.304 4.1 −6.3% <0.001 0.9 +1.8% 0.144
  Repeated measure ANOVA between conditions: p = 0.002 Repeated measure ANOVA between conditions: p = 0.002 Repeated measure ANOVA between conditions: p = 0.029
Midfoot
Comparison Mean difference change # p-Value of post hoc test Mean difference change # p-Value of post hoc test Mean difference change # p-Value of post hoc test
1 vs. 2 8.2 −9.2% NA* 2.8 +23.3% <0.001 4 +21.2% 0.002
2 vs. 3 0.2 +0.1% NA* 0.7 +4.7% 0.104 1.2 +5.2% 0.113
3 vs. 4 4.3 +5.4% NA* 6.6 +42.6% <0.001 12.4 +51.5% <0.001
  Repeated measure ANOVA between conditions: p = 0.052 Repeated measure ANOVA between conditions: p < 0.001 Repeated measure ANOVA between conditions: p < 0.001
  1. The four insole conditions are: 1. baseline; 2. pre-plug removal; 3. post-plug removal; and 4. post-plug removal plus arch support.
  2. Note: Due to the main purpose of our study is to test the effect of plugs removal (comparison between 2 vs. 3), arch addition (3 vs. 4), and the original insole itself (1 vs. 2), the results about condition 1 vs. 3, 1 vs. 4, and 2 vs. 4 are not shown in the Table 3.
  3. # A decrease (−) in the % indicates that the latter insole condition recorded a lower value than the former and an increase (+) in the % indicates that the latter insole condition recorded a higher value than the former.
  4. * Post hoc test for pairwise comparison between each two of the four conditions is not required if repeated measure ANOVA shows no significant difference between the four conditions.