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Table 2 Plantar pressure results – mean (SD)

From: The effect of shoe toe box shape and volume on forefoot interdigital and plantar pressures in healthy females

  Barefoot Round Square Point pvalue
Mean peak pressure (N/cm2)      
     Heel – medial 19.29(7.42)§ 23.81(9.56)§ 22.47(11.09)§ 38.36(8.24) 0.000*
     Heel – lateral 16.71(5.14)‡§ 17.45(7.08)‡§ 24.9(7.45)†§ 32.21(7.92)†‡ 0.000*
     Midfoot 8.35(5.36)†§ 6.75(2.49) 8.29(4.01) 3.28(1.87) 0.000*
     Metatarsal head 1 19.06(8.54)†‡§ 17.98(6.53) 15.05(5.93) 10.01(6.49) 0.000*
     Metatarsal head 2 18.11(10.97) 18.89(10.23) 20.06(7.79) 21.79(8.23) 0.195*
     Metatarsal head 3 17.16(9.3)†§ 18.85(11.7) 19.47(6.31) 24.06(10.61) 0.005*
     Metatarsal head 4 17.79(7.57)†§ 23.99(12.99)‡§ 11.6(4)†§ 14.32(5.84)†‡ 0.000*
     Metatarsal head 5 7.53(6.14)‡§ 16.67(12.74)‡§ 9.28(4.97) 5.41(2.99) 0.000*
     Toe 1 24.4(18.8) 24.66(15.35) 12.27(6.28)§ 10.77(6.04) 0.000**
     Toes 2-5 11.53(15.45)‡§ 15.78(15.09) 5.92(7.37)†§ 2.63(2.48) 0.000**
Mean time to peak pressure (ms)      
     Heel – medial 136.29(31.59) 139.4(97.94) 133.5(75.69) 115.63(64.6)†§ 0.000*
     Heel – lateral 126.71(41.41)‡§ 129.67(62.78)‡§ 144.91(85.3)†§ 140.23(68.54)†‡ 0.000*
     Midfoot 234.9(63.92)†‡ 290.98(97.43) 320.67(83.24) 234.51(66.64) 0.000*
     Metatarsal head 1 490.82(139.71)†‡ 524.37(113.83) 512.25(67.26) 486.85(51.09) 0.000*
     Metatarsal head 2 516.9(109.73) 515.53(109.21) 517.72(61.9) 517.59(45.53) 0.08*
     Metatarsal head 3 497.34(108.83)† 510.81(104.8) 479.37(66.1) 506.85(52.53) 0.002*
     Metatarsal head 4 452.06(11.45)†‡ 462.91(104.35) 448.29(75.16) 471.97(67.76)†‡ 0.001*
     Metatarsal head 5 350.09(174.91)‡§ 368.74(114.85)‡ 404.17(85.18) 402.79(92.98) 0.000*
     Toe 1 595.71(116.74)† 613.24(125.25) 525.59(144.43) 539.71(70.58) 0.006**
     Toes 2-5 552.94(98.03)§ 490.09(179.56) 480.1(143.19)§ 510.43(93.12) 0.026**
Mean total contact time (ms)      
     Heel – medial 371.8(64.32) 410.31(106.4) 394.5(74.82) 387.83(68.15) 0.36*
     Heel – lateral 365.9(62.3) 383.87(90.66) 395.04(77.02) 387.89(61.1) 0.109*
     Midfoot 404.1(65.24) 421.81(82.7) 424.4(67.3) 388.54(79.95) 0.08*
     Metatarsal head 1 491.3(112.34) 485.9(79.21) 479.26(84.9) 486.84(51.09) 0.42*
     Metatarsal head 2 504.25(136.3) 514.5(108.83) 489.79(112.26) 518(69.69) 0.52*
     Metatarsal head 3 533.74(106.8) 508.4(137.4) 525.09(62.56) 537.86(68.17) 0.24*
     Metatarsal head 4 522.72(139.9) 547.2(106.3) 518.58(53.55) 540.45(56.58) 0.188*
     Metatarsal head 5 502.61(96.28) 492.71(140.8) 484.95(82.6) 478.84(63.91) 0.79*
     Toe 1 299.4(83.75)†§ 248.72(71.94) 279(115.1) 392.48(116.45) 0.000**
     Toes 2-5 419.94(208.46)†§ 310.47(182.6) 453.87(214)§ 281.64(99.52) 0.003**
Pressure–time integral (N/cm2/ms)      
     Heel – medial 4.24(1.84) 5.35(2.31) 4.8(2.37) 8.38(2.91) 0.309*
     Heel – lateral 3.58(1.26) 3.68(1.37) 5.42(1.71) 7.26(2.24) 0.642*
     Midfoot 2.01(1.42)†§ 1.73(0.77) 2.19(1.07) 0.78(0.51) 0.000*
     Metatarsal head 1 3.99(1.58) 3.71(1.58) 3.24(1.54) 2.17(1.55) 0.043*
     Metatarsal head 2 4.27(2.79) 3.99(2.35) 4.31(2.02) 5.1(2.07) 0.999*
     Metatarsal head 3 4.04(2.11) 4.37(3.25) 4.97(1.95) 5.91(3.22) 0.06*
     Metatarsal head 4 5.18(2.66) 6.59(4.23) 2.97(1.15) 3.78(1.91) 0.396*
     Metatarsal head 5 2.18(2.04) 2.32(3.39) 2.54(1.52) 1.31(0.85) 0.462*
     Toe 1 3.08(2.39)‡§ 2.67(1.64) 1.24(0.82) 1.76(1.11) 0.001**
     Toes 2-5 1.37(1.38) 1.48(1.57) 4.09(1.18)†§ 0.37(0.33) 0.002**
  1. * ANOVA.
  2. ** Friedman test.
  3. † significantly different to round.
  4. ‡ significantly different to square.
  5. § significantly different to point.