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Table 3 Summary of studies included

From: Effectiveness of interventions in reducing pain and maintaining physical activity in children and adolescents with calcaneal apophysitis (Sever’s disease): a systematic review

First Author, Year Study design Country/Population Diagnosis * Sample size Treatments used Outcome measurement Assessment time frame Effect of intervention Level of evidence[37]
      Rest Ice Stretch Taping Heel Lifts Orthoses Other     
Hunt, 2007 [42] Case series USA Yes 11 X X X X X X 11 point pain scale 5 minutes P = .001 4
9 male, 2  
female
Aged 9-14
Kvist, 1991 [41] Retrospective case review Finland Yes 67 X Pain** 16 weeks Not reported 3
36 Male          (Massage) Activity history
31 female
Aged 8-16
Leri, 2004 [43] Case Report USA Yes 1 X X X Pain** 1 week Not reported 4
1 Male
Age 11
Micheli 1987 [17] Retrospective case review Sweden Yes 85 X X X Symptomatic relief 48 weeks Not reported 3
64 Male          mobil/activity mod Time
21 Female          Activity history
7-15 years
Perhamre 2011 [38] Randomised Trial Sweden Yes 35 X X X X X Borg CR-10 Pain 8 weeks IQR 2
35 males P vaues
Aged 9–15 years
Perhamre 2011b [40] Randomised Trial Sweden Yes 30 X X X X X X Borg CR-10-Pain 4 weeks P values 2
30, 45 or 50 children           Endgstrom Activity level
Aged 9–15 years
Perhamre 2010c [39] Randomised control trial Sweden Yes 51 X X X X X Borg CR-10- Pain 26 weeks P Values 2
51 males
Aged 9-15
White, Case report USA Yes 1 X X VAS Pain 18 days Not reported 4
2006 [44]   1 female          (NSAIDS, Heat, mobilised) LEFS***    
   Aged 8          Strength    
            ROM    
Wooten , 1990 [45] Case Series USA Yes 5     X X X Tapping padding Pain ** 4 weeks P Values 4
   5    X      ROM    
  1. * Diagnosis of calcaneal apophysitis confirmed by medial and lateral compression (calcaneal squeeze test).
  2. **The pain scale utilised was not disclosed.
  3. ***LEFS- Lower extremity functional screen.