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Table 2 Mean ± SD and 99% lower and upper confidence limits of goniometric and radiographic measures

From: Neuropathic midfoot deformity: associations with ankle and subtalar joint motion

  DM, PN and deformity DM PN No deformity Young control Group pvalue
Involved Uninvolved    
AJ Plantar-flexion (degree) 23 ± 11* 35 ± 15 38 ± 10 47 ± 7 < .001
15 - 30 25 - 45 32 - 45 43 - 52
AJ Dorsi-flexion (degree) 5 ± 6 7 ± 6 7 ± 5 12 ± 3 < .001
1 - 9 3 - 10 3 - 10 9 - 14
STJ inversion (degree) 11 ± 6* 15 ± 7 15 ± 5 16 ± 3 < .001
8 - 15 11 - 20 12 - 19 13 - 18
STJ eversion (degree) 5 ± 2 5 ± 3 7 ± 2 8 ± 1 < .001
4 - 7 3 - 8 6 - 9 7 - 9
Talar declination angle (degree) 34 ± 9* 30 ± 5 26 ± 4 23 ± 3 < .003
28 - 40 27 - 33 23 - 28 22 - 25
Calcaneal inclination angle (degree) 11 ± 10* 16 ± 8 18 ± 9 21 ± 4 < .001
5 - 18 11 - 22 13 - 24 18 - 24
  1. Values denoted with * are different than their paired foot, (p<0.05). DM, PN and Deformity is diabetes mellitus, peripheral neuropathy and deformity; AJ is ankle joint; STJ is subtalar joint. Group p values refers to the comparisons of the three participant groups using the average of both feet for Young Control and DM PN No Deformity groups and the Involved Foot for the DM PN Deformity group. Comparisons to the Uninvolved foot for the DM PN Deformity group were significant for AJ Plantar-flexion, AJ Dorsi-flexion, STJ Eversion and Talar Declination Angle (p <0.01).