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Table 1 Parameters characterizing the changes in medio-lateral arch height and mutual distances between metatarsal head I, II/III and V and metatarsal base I and V during stance phase and for the different subphases

From: Forefoot deformation during the stance phase of normal gait

  StPh (mm) HC (mm) MF (mm) MS (mm) IPO (mm) FPO (mm)
Max. MedioLat Height 1.13 ± 0.08 0.87 ± 0.07 0.87 ± 0.06 1.01 ± 0.04 1.13 ± 0.08 1.05 ± 0.10
Min. MedioLat Height 85.95 ± 8.95 4.39 ± 2.50 12.34 ± 3.32 47.25 ± 12.02 87.39 ± 7.73 95.88 ± 1.27
Max. distance HMTI-HMTV 1.01 ± 0.01 0.92 ± 0.02 0.96 ± 0.02 1.01 ± 0.01 1.00 ± 0.01 0.94 ± 0.02
Min. distance HMTI-HMTV 0.90 ± 0.02 0.90 ± 0.02 0.92 ± 0.02 0.96 ± 0.02 0.94 ± 0.02 0.91 ± 0.02
Max. distance HMTI-HMTII/III 1.01 ± 0.04 0.94 ± 0.04 0.95 ± 0.04 1.01 ± 0.03 1.01 ± 0.02 0.97 ± 0.04
Min. distance HMTI-HMTII/III 0.91 ± 0.04 0.92 ± 0.04 0.93 ± 0.04 0.95 ± 0.04 0.97 ± 0.04 0.93 ± 0.04
Max. distance HMTII/III- HMTV 1.01 ± 0.04 0.89 ± 0.05 0.94 ± 0.05 1.01 ± 0.04 1.01 ± 0.04 0.93 ± 0.04
Min. distance HMTII/III- HMTV 0.87 ± 0.05 0.87 ± 0.05 0.89 ± 0.05 0.94 ± 0.48 0.93 ± 0.04 0.90 ± 0.04
Max. distance BMTI-BMTV 1.00 ± 0.01 0.99 ± 0.01 0.99 ± 0.01 1.00 ± 0.01 1.00 ± 0.01 1.00 ± 0.01
Min. distance BMTI-BMTV 0.97 ±0.01 0.97 ± 0.01 0.99 ± 0.01 0.99 ± 0.01 0.98 ± 0.01 0.97 ± 0.01
  1. Legend: StPh = stance phase, HC = heel contact, MF = metatarsal forming, MS = midstance, IPO = initial propulsion, FPO = final propulsion, max. = maximum, min. = minimum, HMT = head metatarsal, BMT = base metatarsal