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Table 1 RMS diff and max diff over the whole stance phase and ROM assessed by videofluoroscopy (fluoro) and skin marker analysis (skin). Mean and SD over all 11 subjects of sagittal (sag), frontal (front) and transverse (trans) plane rotations, * statistically significant difference between fluoro and and skin (p<0.05).

From: How well can skin marker analysis detect the kinematics of a total ankle arthroplasty? - a comparison to videofluoroscopy

   Level gait Uphill Downhill
   Sag Front Trans Sag Front Trans Sag Front Trans
RMS diff [°] Mean
± SD
1.5
± 0.7
2.0
± 0.9
2.9
± 1.0
1.5
± 0.6
2.4
± 1.4
2.8
± 1.2
1.7
± 0.6
2.0
± 0.9
3.0
± 1.2
Max diff [°] Mean
± SD
3.9
± 1.7
4.9
± 2.5
6.8
± 2.7
3.6
± 1.8
5.1
± 2.8
5.7
± 2.2
4.3
± 1.7
4.5
± 1.9
5.7
± 1.9
   Fluoro Skin Fluoro Skin Fluoro Skin Fluoro Skin Fluoro Skin Fluoro Skin Fluoro Skin Fluoro Skin Fluoro Skin
ROM [°] Mean
± SD
10.0*
± 2.8
11.6*
± 2.9
2.9*
± 1.0
5.8*
± 2.1
8.1*
± 2.9
6.5*
± 2.7
9.6*
± 4.8
11.5*
± 3.3
2.5*
± 0.7
5.6*
± 2.7
6.6
± 2.3
6.8
± 3.2
13.1
± 3.7
14.7
± 2.7
3.0*
± 0.6
5.4*
± 2.1
7.7*
± 2.5
5.7*
± 2.3