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Table 1 Pooled effect of bare feet vs. athletic footwear during running (+’ve: attenuated in BF, –‘ve: attenuated in shod)

From: Shock attenuation in shoes compared to barefoot: a systematic review

Variable Time of Collection # of Studies n Mean Difference [95% CI] P Value
Vertical Ground Reaction Force Impact Transient De Wit et al 2000, Divert et al 2005, Esnault 1985, Lieberman et al 2010 108 0.22 [0.20, 0.23] <0.00001
  Peak Force Alcantara et al 1996, Braunstein et al 2010, Dickinson et al 1986, Fong et al 2007, Kerrigan et al 2009, Serrao & Amadio 2001, Squadrone & Gallozzi 2009,Stockton & Dyson 1998 128 -0.03 [-0.07, 0.01] 0.19
Loading Rate Impact Transient De Wit 2000, Lieberman 2010 72 -3.56 [-4.10, -3.02]* <0.00001
  Peak Force Alcantara 1996, Serrao & Amadio 2001 11 -0.59 [-2.52, 1.35]* 0.55
Tibial Acceleration Peak Force Alcantara et al 1996, McNair & Marshall 1994 18 -3.19 [-4.35, -2.03]* <0.00001
  1. *Standardised Mean Difference [95% CI]