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Table 2 Outcomes and between group comparisons across time for peak pressure, forefoot pressure time integral, total contact area and forefoot rate of loading

From: A comparison of customised and prefabricated insoles to reduce risk factors for neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration: a participant-blinded randomised controlled trial

Outcome Custom-made functional Prefabricated Overall significance*
  Baseline 6-months Baseline 6-months (all randomised)
  Actual % 95% CI Actual % 95% CI Actual % 95% CI Actual % 95% CI  
Peak pressure reduction kPa 189 37 40, 33 239 37 42, 33 199 35 39, 31 187 31 34, 26 F=2.687
  (111) (15)   (171) (14)   (115) (15)   (141) (17)   Eta2=0.023
              p=0.104
Forefoot pressure time integral reduction kPa.sec 14 27 29, 24 18 30 32, 27 12 22 25, 20 15 24 26, 21 F=11.276
  (10) (11)   (12) (10)   (7) (8)   (12) (10)   Eta2=0.089
              p=0.001
Total contact area increase mm 2 4285 32 30, 35 2443 15 13, 16 3827 29 27, 32 2395 15 14, 16 F=1.66
  (1464) (10)   (1147) (5)   (1183) (9)   (803) (5)   Eta2=0.014
              p=0.20
Forefoot rate of loading reduction KPa/sec 4 3 6, 0.4 7 4 8, 0.6 7 6 9, 3 6 3 6, 0.7 F=0.225
  (11) (13)   (16) (14)   (13) (11)   (17) (13)   Eta2=0.002
              p=0.636
  1. Values are mean and (SD).
  2. % is the actual difference expressed as a percentage of ‘no-insole’.
  3. *ANOVA; significance of difference in % change between custom-made functional and prefabricated insoles over 6 months.