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Table 1 Gait measurements for control and textured insoles during level-ground walking (N = 26)

From: Altering gait by way of stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot: the immediate effect of wearing textured insoles in older fallers

Gait measurement Control Texture P value
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD)  
Velocity (cm.s−1) 66.3 (27.0) 62.1 (26.6) 0.02*
Cadence (steps/min) 90.4 (17.5) 87.7 (17.7) 0.14
Step Time (Left Foot) (s) 0.7 (0.1) 0.7 (0.1) insole 0.21
Step Time (Right Foot) (s) 0.7 (0.2) 0.7 (0.2) limb 0.81
    interaction 0.72
Cycle Time (Left Foot) (s) 1.4 (0.3) 1.4 (0.3) insole 0.21
Cycle Time (Right Foot) (s) 1.4 (0.3) 1.4 (0.3) limb 0.62
    interaction 0.88
Step Length (Left Foot) (cm) 42.6 (11.9) 41.4 (12.4) insole 0.04*
Step Length (Right Foot) (cm) 43.0 (12.1) 41.2 (11.9) limb 1.00
    interaction 0.66
Stride Length (Left Foot) (cm) 85.5 (23.9) 82.6 (23.8) insole 0.03*
Stride Length (Right Foot) (cm) 86.1 (23.9) 83.2 (24.8) limb 0.09
    interaction 0.94
Heel to Heel Base (Left Foot) (cm) 12.3 (4.5) 10.0 (8.6) insole 0.24
Heel to Heel Base (Right Foot) (cm) 12.1 (4.5) 10.2 (8.2) limb 0.87
    interaction 0.18
Single Support Time (Left Foot) (%GC) 31.5 (5.2) 30.7 (5.3) insole 0.14
Single Support Time (Right Foot) (%GC) 31.5 (5.4) 31.0 (5.3) limb 0.89
    interaction 0.68
Double Support Time (Left Foot) (%GC) 37.9 (9.0) 38.8 (9.4) insole 0.21
Double Support Time (Right Foot) (%GC) 37.8 (8.9) 38.7 (9.7) limb 0.52
    interaction 0.90
Swing Time (Left Foot) (%GC) 31.5 (5.4) 31.2 (5.5) insole 0.15
Swing Time (Right Foot) (%GC) 31.5 (5.1) 30.6 (5.1) limb 0.70
    interaction 0.42
Stance Time (Left Foot) (%GC) 68.5 (5.3) 68.8 (5.5) insole 0.14
Stance Time (Right Foot) (%GC) 68.6 (5.1) 69.5 (5.1) limb 0.69
    interaction 0.41
  1. The table shows P values of paired t-tests for velocity and cadence. For the other gait variables it shows P values of 2-way ANOVA main effects of insole and limb, and insole x limb interaction. * P < 0.05.