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Table 4 Significant differences between the PPH groups in ROM for the ankle/subtalar joint complex and midtarsal joint (p ≥ 0.05)

From: Foot kinematics in patients with two patterns of pathological plantar hyperkeratosis

Joint/Complex Gait event Cardinal Body Plane Group 1 (PPH 2, 3 and 4) Group 2 (PPH 1 and 5)
    mean St. Dev 95% CI (upper/lower) mean St. Dev 95% CI (upper/lower)
Leg/heel HC to FF frontal 5.1° 2.2° 0.8°/9.4° 4.0° 1.5° 1.1°/6.9°
  FF to AN sagittal 9.1° 2.5° 4.2°/14° 6.8° 3.4° 0.1°/13.5°
  AN to HO frontal 1.1° 1.8° -2.4°/4.6° -0.1° 1.6° -3.2°/3.0°
   sagittal 6.8° 2.5° 1.9°/11.7° 9.1° 3.4° 2.4°/15.8°
  MTD to TO sagittal -6.6° 2.0° -10.5°/-2.6° -4.9° 2.1° -9.0°/-0.8°
mid foot/heel HC to FF frontal -4.1° 1.7° -7.4°/-0.8° -2.4° 1.6° -5.5°/0.7°
  FF to AN transverse 0.1° 1.4° -2.6°/2.8° 0.9° 1.6° -2.2°/4.0°
   sagittal 5.9° 2.6° 0.8°/11.0° 3.4° 2.4° -1.3°/8.1°
  AN to HO transverse 1.0° 1.3° -1.6°/3.6° 0.2° 1.4° -2.5°/2.9°
  HO to MAD frontal 0.2° 0.8° -1.4°/1.8° -0.9° 1.0° -2.9°/1.1°
  MTD to TO transverse -0.2° 1.2° -2.6°/2.2° 0.5° 1.3° -2.1°/3.1°
   sagittal -4.5° 1.9° -8.2°/-0.8° -3.1° 1.9° -6.8°/0.6°
First metatarsal/mid foot FF to AN frontal -4.0° 3.1° -10.1°/2.1° -2.0° 2.5° -6.9°/2.9°
   transverse -4.4° 4.4° -13.0°/4.2° -2.4° 2.1° -6.5°/1.7°
   sagittal -3.8° 3.3° -10.3°/2.7° -2.2° 1.5° -5.1°/0.7°
  MTD to TO transverse 1.6° 1.3° -1.0°/4.2° 1.0° 0.9° -0.8°/2.8°
   sagittal 4.0° 1.9° 0.3°/7.7° 2.0° 2.0° -1.9°/5.9°
1st MPJ MTD to TO frontal -0.6° 2.5° -5.5°/4.3° -2.0° 2.4° -6.7°/2.7°
  1. Positive results represent eversion (frontal plane), abduction (transverse plane) and dorsiflexion movements