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Table 8 Mean differences and statistical significance for kinetic variables for shod and barefoot running.

From: Effect of children's shoes on gait: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Variable Shoe Condition Authors n Weighting Mean difference [95%CI] Statistical significance: z Score (P) Heterogeneity: I 2%
Max vertical impact force (BW) Athletic Alcantara et al. [21] (girls) 4 49.4% -0.32 [-0.42, -0.22] - -
  Athletic Alcantara et al. [21] (boys) 4 50.6% 0.05 [-0.01, 0.11] - -
  Athletic Pooled effect 8 100.0% -0.13 [-0.50, 0.23] 0.72 (P = 0.47) 97%
  Walking Alcantara et al. [21] (girls) 4 49.9% -0.16 [-0.22, -0.10] - -
  Walking Alcantara et al. [21] (boys) 4 50.1% -0.68 [-0.73, -0.63] - -
  Walking Pooled effect 8 100.0% -0.42 [-0.93, 0.09] 1.62 (P = 0.11) 99%
Rate of load at impact (BW/s) Athletic Alcantara et al. [21] (girls) 4 49.5% -139.71 [-161.60, -117.82] - -
  Athletic Alcantara et al. [21] (boys) 4 50.5% -43.64 [-56.16, -31.12] - -
  Athletic Pooled effect 8 100.0% -91.24 [-185.38, 2.90] 1.90 (P = 0.06) 98%
  Walking Alcantara et al. [21] (girls) 4 49.6% -146.63 [-168.67, -124.59] - -
  Walking Alcantara et al. [21] (boys) 4 50.4% -41.88 [-54.47, -29.29] - -
  Walking Pooled effect 8 100.0% -93.85 [-196.50, 8.80] 1.79 (P = 0.07) 98%
Long axis max tibial acceleration (g) Athletic Alcantara et al. [21] (girls) 4 49.9% -2.16 [-2.61, -1.71] - -
  Athletic Alcantara et al. [21] (boys) 4 50.1% -0.94 [-1.37, -0.51] - -
  Athletic Pooled effect 8 100.0% -1.55 [-2.74, -0.35] 2.54 (P = 0.01) 93%
  Walking Alcantara et al. [21] (girls) 4 49.7% -2.65 [-3.12, -2.18] - -
  Walking Alcantara et al. [21] (boys) 4 50.3% -1.67 [-2.11, -1.23] - -
  Walking Pooled effect 8 100.0% -2.16 [-3.12, -1.20] 4.40 (P < 0.0001) 89%
Rate of tibia acceleration (g/s) Athletic Alcantara et al. [21] (girls) 4 50.6% -252.59 [-292.21, -212.97] - -
  Athletic Alcantara et al. [21] (boys) 4 49.4% -135.17 [-181.84, -88.50] - -
  Athletic Pooled effect 8 100.0% -194.56 [-309.62, -79.49] 3.31 (P = 0.0009) 93%
  Walking Alcantara et al. [21] (girls) 4 56.4% -261.63 [-302.88, -220.38] - -
  Walking Alcantara et al. [21] (boys) 4 43.6% -145.83 [-192.73, -98.93] - -
  Walking Pooled effect 8 100.0% -211.13 [-242.11, -180.16] 13.36 (P < 0.00001) 92%
Shock wave transmission as a ratio of maximum acceleration (g/BW) Athletic Alcantara et al. [21] (girls) 4 54.8% -0.35 [-0.57, -0.13] - -
  Athletic Alcantara et al. [21] (boys) 4 45.2% -0.59 [-0.86, -0.32] - -
  Athletic Pooled effect 8 100.0% -0.46 [-0.69, -0.22] 3.84 (P = 0.0001) 45%
  Walking Alcantara et al. [21] (girls) 4 50.1% -0.14 [-0.40, 0.12] - -
  Walking Alcantara et al. [21] (boys) 4 49.9% -0.78 [-1.05, -0.51] - -
  Walking Pooled effect 8 100.0% -0.46 [-1.09, 0.17] 1.43 (P = 0.15) 91%
  1. A negative mean difference value indicates a decrease during shod running compared to barefoot running.