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Table 6 Mean differences and statistical significance for kinematic variables for shod and barefoot running.

From: Effect of children's shoes on gait: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Variable Shoe Condition Authors n Weighting Mean difference [95%CI] Statistical significance: z Score (P) Heterogeneity: I 2%
Ankle angle at foot strike (°) Unknown Lieberman et al. [25] 17 100.0% -6.80 [-13.52, -0.08] 1.98 (P = 0.049) N/A
Plantar foot angle at foot strike (°) Unknown Lieberman et al. [25] 17 100.0% -9.70 [-16.43, -2.97] 2.83 (P = 0.005) N/A
Knee angle at foot strike (°) Unknown Lieberman et al. [25] 17 100.0% -0.50 [-4.90, 3.90] 0.22 (P = 0.82) N/A
Knee lift angle (°) Unknown Tazuke [26] 4 100.0% -1.20 [-16.25, 13.84] 0.16 (P = 0.88) N/A
Knee angular velocity (°/s) Unknown Tazuke [26] 4 100.0% -160.59 [-304.34, -16.83] 2.19 (P = 0.03) N/A
Swing-back velocity (°/s) Unknown Tazuke [26] 4 100.0% -84.24 [-158.64, -9.84] 2.22 (P = 0.03) N/A
  1. A negative mean difference value indicates a decrease during shod running compared to barefoot running. N/A indicates not applicable