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Table 5 Mean differences and statistical significance for kinematic variables for shod and barefoot walking.

From: Effect of children's shoes on gait: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Variable Shoe Condition Authors n Weighting Mean difference [95%CI] Statistical significance: z Score (P) Heterogeneity: I 2%
Hallux flexion ROM(°) Oxford Wegener et al. [23] 20 64.5% -11.52 [-13.64, -9.40] - -
  Walking Wolf et al. [8] 18 35.5% -11.40 [-14.26, -8.54] - -
  Combined Pooled effect 38 100.0% -11.48 [-13.18, -9.78] 13.22 (P < 0.00001) 0%
  Walking (increased flexibility) Wolf et al. [8] 18 100.0% -9.30 [-12.29, -6.31] 6.09 (P < 0.00001) N/A
Sagittal tibia-rearfoot ROM (°) Oxford Wegener et al. [23] 20 43.5% 1.24 [-1.80, 4.28] - -
  Walking Wolf et al. [8] 18 56.5% 4.10 [1.84, 6.36] - -
  Combined Pooled effect 38 100.0% 2.86 [0.08, 5.64] 2.01 (P = 0.04) 54%
  Walking (increased flexibility) Wolf et al. [8] 18 100.0% 3.20 [0.91, 5.49] 2.74 (P = 0.006) N/A
Sagittal tibia-foot ROM (°) Oxford Wilkinson et al. [20] 27 49.3% 6.40 [3.40, 9.40] - -
  Walking Wolf et al. [8] 18 50.4% -0.80 [-3.53, 1.93] - -
  Combined Pooled effect 45 100.0% 2.75 [-4.31, 9.80] 0.76 (P = 0.45) 91%
  Athletic Wilkinson et al.[20] 26 100.0% 7.60 [4.13, 11.07] 4.29 (P < 0.0001) N/A
  Walking (increased flexibility) Wolf et al. [8] 18 100.0% -1.00 [-3.82, 1.82] 0.70 (P = 0.49) N/A
Medial arch length ROM (°) Walking Wolf et al. [8] 18 100.0% -4.00 [-5.35, -2.65] 5.82 (P < 0.00001) N/A
  Walking (increased flexibility) Wolf et al. [8] 18 100.0% -3.90 [-5.32, -2.48] 5.37 (P < 0.00001) N/A
'Subtalar' rotation ROM(°) Walking Wolf et al. [8] 18 100.0% 0.90 [-0.09, 1.89] 1.78 (P = 0.07) N/A
  Walking (increased flexibility) Wolf et al. [8] 18 100.0% 1.10 [0.11, 2.09] 2.18 (P = 0.03) N/A
Foot torsion ROM (°) Walking Wolf et al. [8] 18 100.0% -5.10 [-6.67, -3.53] 6.36 (P < 0.00001) N/A
  Walking (increased flexibility) Wolf et al. [8] 18 100.0% -4.60 [-6.27, -2.93] 5.41 (P < 0.00001) N/A
Forefoot supination ROM (°) Walking Wolf et al. [8] 18 100.0% -1.90 [-3.48, -0.32] 2.36 (P = 0.02) N/A
  Walking (increased flexibility) Wolf et al. [8] 18 100.0% -1.90 [-3.40, -0.40] 2.48 (P = 0.01) N/A
Foot rotation ROM (°) Walking Wolf et al. [8] 18 100.0% -2.20 [-4.88, 0.48] 1.61 (P = 0.11) N/A
  Walking (increased flexibility) Wolf et al. [8] 18 100.0% -1.50 [-4.32, 1.32] 1.04 (P = 0.30) N/A
Forefoot width ROM (%) Walking Wolf et al. [8] 18 100.0% -5.40 [-6.97, -3.83] 6.74 (P < 0.00001) N/A
  Walking (increased flexibility) Wolf et al. [8] 18 100.0% -3.80 [-5.37, -2.23] 4.74 (P < 0.00001) N/A
Midfoot sagittal plane ROM (°) Oxford Wegener et al.[23] 20 100.0% -7.44 [-11.15, -3.73] 3.93 (P < 0.0001) N/A
Midfoot frontal plane ROM (°) Oxford Wegener et al. [23] 20 100.0% -3.07 [-5.04, -1.10] 3.06 (P = 0.002) N/A
Midfoot transverse plane ROM (°) Oxford Wegener et al. [23] 20 100.0% -5.01 [-6.55, -3.48] 6.39 (P < 0.00001) N/A
Rearfoot frontal plane ROM (°) Oxford Wegener et al. [23] 20 100.0% -1.68 [-4.27, 0.90] 1.28 (P = 0.20) N/A
Rearfoot transverse plane ROM (°) Oxford Wegener et al. [23] 20 100.0% 0.39 [-2.52, 3.29] 0.26 (P = 0.79) N/A
Knee sagittal plane ROM (°) Oxford Wegener et al. [23] 20 100.0% 9.21 [3.22, 15.21] 3.01 (P = 0.003) N/A
Knee frontal plane ROM (°) Oxford Wegener et al. [23] 20 100.0% 0.02 [-1.48, 1.52] 0.02 (P = 0.98) N/A
Knee transverse plane ROM (°) Oxford Wegener et al. [23] 20 100.0% -0.13 [-4.80, 4.55] 0.05 (P = 0.96) N/A
Hip sagittal plane ROM (°) Oxford Wegener et al. [23] 20 100.0% 2.04 [-1.21, 5.29] 1.23 (P = 0.22) N/A
Hip frontal plane ROM (°) Oxford Wegener et al. [23] 20 100.0% -0.40 [-2.39, 1.58] 0.40 (P = 0.69) N/A
Hip transverse plane ROM (°) Oxford Wegener et al. [23] 20 100.0% 1.10 [-1.05, 3.25] 1.00 (P = 0.32) N/A
Ankle max dorsiflexion (°) Oxford Wilkinson et al.[20] 27 100.0% -7.20 [-11.18, -3.22] 3.54 (P = 0.0004) N/A
  Athletic Wilkinson et al.[20] 26 100.0% -1.70 [-5.45, 2.05] 0.89 (P = 0.37) N/A
Ankle angle at foot lift (°) Oxford Wilkinson et al.[20] 27 100.0% -5.70 [-10.45, -0.95] 2.35 (P = 0.02) N/A
  Athletic Wilkinson et al.[20] 26 100.0% -1.50 [-5.92, 2.92] 0.67 (P = 0.51) N/A
Ankle max plantarflexion (°) Oxford Wilkinson et al.[20] 27 100.0% -0.70 [-5.94, 4.54] 0.26 (P = 0.79) N/A
  Athletic Wilkinson et al.[20] 26 100.0% 5.80 [1.58, 10.02] 2.69 (P = 0.007) N/A
Ankle ROM, foot lift to max plantarflexion (°) Oxford Wilkinson et al.[20] 27 100.0% 5.00 [1.79, 8.21] 3.05 (P = 0.002) N/A
  Athletic Wilkinson et al.[20] 26 100.0% 7.30 [3.56, 11.04] 3.82 (P = 0.0001) N/A
  1. A negative mean difference value indicates a decrease during shod walking compared to barefoot walking. N/A indicates not applicable.