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Table 2 Content of clinical assessment: clinical interview, physical examination and self-complete questionnaire

From: The clinical assessment study of the foot (CASF): study protocol for a prospective observational study of foot pain and foot osteoarthritis in the general population

Concept Measurement method Detail
Clinical Interview
Pre-assessment screening:   
   Screen for clinical "red flags" Recent significant foot or hand injury
Recent sudden change in foot symptoms
 
   Screen for joint surgery History of joint operations  
Foot pain characteristics Side of pain  
  Comparative severity of bilateral symptoms  
  Duration Within 12 months, 1-5 years, 5-10 years, 10+ years (for each foot)
  Preceding accident/injury Yes/no
  Foot pain/aching/discomfort in last month Yes/no
Foot pain quality Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire [47] 15 sensory and affective descriptors
Sleep disturbance Self-report Yes/no
Sensory disturbance Self-reported tingling/numbness/pins and needles Yes/no (for each foot)
Causal attribution What do you think has caused the problem with your foot/feet? Recorded verbatim
Diagnostic attribution What do you think is the matter with your foot/feet now? Recorded verbatim
Foot surgery Details of any foot surgery Nature of surgery
Right/left
< 1 year, 1- < 5 years, 5- < 10 years, 10+ years ago
Foot/ankle injury Details of foot/ankle injury Sprain, fracture, other
Right/left; forefoot, mid-foot, heel, ankle
< 1 year, 1- < 5 years, 5- < 10 years, 10+ years ago
Planned treatment Are you waiting for any appointments or treatments for this foot or ankle problem? Yes/no (free text comments for yes)
Importance of health problems What would you consider to be your two most important health problems at the moment? [Includes foot problem] Recorded verbatim
Physical examination
Screen for clinical "red flags" Acutely, swollen, hot, painful feet or hands Yes/no (free text for comments)
Observation Skin lesions Bunionette, hyperkeratotic lesions, ulcers (plantar and dorsal aspect)
Toe deformity MTPJ and interphalangeal joint hyperextension
Mallet toe, hammer toe, claw toe, retracted toe
Present/absent (great toe)
Present/absent (lesser toes)
Palpation Mid-foot bony exostosis
Plantar fascia tenderness
Present/absent
Present/absent (insertion and mid-arch)
Foot posture Foot Posture Index [50] Six-criterion scoring system
  Navicular Height [49] Millimetres
  Foot Length [51] Millimetres
  Arch index [48, 49] Weightbearing footprint. Length of footprint excluding toes is divided into equal thirds. Arch index = area of middle third divided by area of entire footprint
Range of movement (foot/ankle) Ankle dorsiflexion (with knee flexed and extended) [53] Degrees
  Subtalar inversion [52] Degrees
  Subtalar eversion [52] Degrees
  1st MTP joint dorsiflexion [54] Degrees
Knee valgus/varus deformity Intercondylar distance Centimetres
  Intermalleolar distance Centimetres
Anthropometric measurements Height Metres
  Weight Kilograms
Lower limb physical function Short physical performance battery (SPPB) [57] Standing balance test, timed repeated chair stand test, 4-metre gait speed test
Hand osteoarthritis Deformity, enlargement, swelling, nodes [55] Observation and palpation: swelling (MCPJ), nodes (PIPJ and DIPJ), deformity and enlargement (1st CMCJ, PIPJ and DIPJ)
Hand function Power grip strength (Jamar dynanometer) [56] Pounds
  Pinch grip strength (B&L pinch gauge) [56] Pounds
Self-complete questionnaire
Section A: Foot Pain   
Foot pain chronicity Chronic Pain Grade [59] 6 questions (0-10 NRS) and 1 question (4 response options) giving grade I-IV
Complaint-specific functioning Symptom satisfaction [64] 5-point Likert scale (Very dissatisfied to Very satisfied)
Section B: Hand pain and problems
Hand pain characteristics Hand pain in last 12 months
Side of pain
Duration in past 12 months
Hand pain, aching, stiffness in last month [55]
Present/absent
< 7 days, 1-4 weeks, 1-3 months, 3+ months
No days, few days, some days, most days, all days
  Hand pain intensity in last month [40] 0-10 NRS with verbal anchors (no pain, pain as bad as could be)
  Location: self-completed hand manikin [60]
AUSCAN [65, 66]
In the past month, have you had any ache or pain that has lasted for one day or longer in your hand? If yes, shade location on hand manikin
   Pain and stiffness sub-scales
Complaint-specific functioning AUSCAN [65, 66] Physical function sub-scale
Hand dominance Self-report Right, left, both
Healthcare use GP consultation within last 12 months for hand problem  
Section C: Hip pain   
Hip pain characteristics Side of pain Both, right, left
  Duration in past 12 months < 7 days, 1-4 weeks, 1-3 months, 3+ months
  Hip pain, aching, stiffness in last month [61] No days, few days, some days, most days, all days.
  WOMAC (hip) [62] Pain and stiffness sub-scales
Complaint-specific functioning WOMAC (hip) [62] Physical function sub-scale
Healthcare use GP consultation within last 12 months for hip pain  
Section D: Knee pain   
Knee pain characteristics Side of pain Both, right, left
  Duration in past 12 months < 7 days, 1-4 weeks, 1-3 months, 3+ months
  Knee pain, aching, stiffness in last month [63] No days, few days, some days, most days, all days.
  WOMAC (knee) [62] Pain and stiffness sub-scales
Complaint-specific functioning WOMAC (knee) [62] Physical function sub-scale
Healthcare use GP consultation within last 12 months for knee pain  
  1. AUSCAN = Australian Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index; CMCJ = carpometacarpal joint; DIPJ = distal interphalangeal joint; GP = General practice; MTPJ = metatarsophalangeal joint; MCPJ = metacarpophalangeal joint; NRS = numeric rating scale; PIPJ = proximal interphalangeal joint; WOMAC = Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index