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Table 9 Summary of shorter-term results for changes in mean functional scores comparing groups receiving stretches versus those receiving another intervention

From: The effectiveness of manual stretching in the treatment of plantar heel pain: a systematic review

  Outcome Group Baseline score (+/- SD) Follow up score (+/- SD) Change in mean score (+/- SD if available) Between group difference (p value)
Hyland [17] Patient Specific Score at 1 week §Stretching 5.6 (1.1) 4.9 (1.2) #-0.7 0.078
  (10 = full function) Calcaneal taping 4.5 (1.6) 6.2 (1.8) #1.7  
Sharma [20] AOFAS ankle/hindfoot scale at 4 weeks Stretching #64 ##(15) #65 ##(21) #1.0 Not stated
  (100 = full function) Bracing #64 ##(5.7) #65 ##(19.8) #1.0  
  1. Abbreviations: SD = standard deviation, AOFAS = American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society.
  2. #Calculated by current authors or estimated from charts
  3. ##Current authors estimation from charts and converting standard error to standard deviation (SD = SE√n)
  4. §See main text for discussion regarding the apparent inconsistency in reported p values between the stretching and control groups