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Table 8 Summary of shorter-term results for changes in mean pain scores comparing groups receiving stretches versus those receiving another intervention

From: The effectiveness of manual stretching in the treatment of plantar heel pain: a systematic review

  Outcome Group Baseline score (+/- SD) Follow up score (+/- SD) Change in mean score (+/- SD if available) Between group difference (p value)
Hyland [17] 10 point visual analogue Stretching 6.3 (0.8) 4.6 (0.7) #-1.7 0.006
  scale at 1 week Calcaneal taping 7.0 (0.8) 2.7 (1.8) #-4.3  
Sharma [20] 10 point visual analogue Stretching #5.3 ## (2.3) 3.5 ## (3.0) #1.75 Not stated
  scale at 4 weeks Bracing #5.0 ## (0.8) 3.75 ## (2.3) #1.25 Not stated
  1. Abbreviations: SD = standard deviation.
  2. #Calculated by current authors or estimated from charts
  3. ## Current authors estimation from charts and converting standard error to standard deviation (SD = SE√n)