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Table 6 Summary of shorter-term changes in mean pain scores comparing groups receiving stretches versus those receiving no intervention or placebo

From: The effectiveness of manual stretching in the treatment of plantar heel pain: a systematic review

  Outcome Group Baseline score (+/- SD) Follow up score (+/- SD) Change in mean score (+/- SD if available) Between group difference (p value)
Hyland [17] 10 point visual analogue scale Stretching 6.3 (0.8) 4.6 (0.7) #-1.7  
  at 1 week (0 = no pain) Control 6.3 (1.2) 6.2 (1.0) #-0.1 Versus stretching 0.026
   Sham taping 6.4 (1.2) 6.0 (0.9) #-0.4 Versus stretching >0.05
Radford [19] 100 mm visual analogue scale Stretching 70.9 (23.0) 51.1 (29.1) -19.8 (26.0) 0.138
  1st step pain at 2 weeks (0 = no pain) Sham ultrasound 75.8 (19.1) 62.5 (29.5) -13.2 (25.2)  
  1. Abbreviations: SD = standard deviation
  2. #Calculated by current authors or estimated from charts