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Table 5 Summary of stretching interventions

From: The effectiveness of manual stretching in the treatment of plantar heel pain: a systematic review

  DiGiovanni et al
Hyland et al
Porter et al
Radford et al
Sharma and Loudon (2010) Wynne et al
Stretching Groups A B   A B    
Type of Stretch Plantar Fascia. Thumb palpation of Plantar Fascia tension. Tendo Achilles Gastrocnemius/
Soleus Plantar Fascia by therapist
Tendo Achilles for 3 minutes Tendo Achilles for 20 seconds Tendo Achilles on step Plantar Fascia stretches and massage. Tendo Achilles stretch "Counter-strain" in position of 70-80% symptom relief of tender points.
Applied by Patient Patient Therapist Patient Patient Patient Patient Therapist
Duration of Stretch 10 seconds 10 seconds 30 seconds 3 minutes 20 seconds Not Described 30 seconds 90 seconds
Frequency of Stretch 10 reps,
3 × daily
10 reps,
3 × daily
3 reps on day 1,
and 3 on day 4
1 rep,
3 × daily
5 reps,
2 × daily
5 minutes daily 3 reps
3× daily
Not described
Weightbearing/Non weightbearing Non weight bearing Weight bearing Non weight bearing Weight bearing Weight bearing Weight bearing Non weight bearing and weight bearing Non weight bearing
Knee flexed or extended Flexed Extended Flexed and Extended Extended Extended Not described Flexed and Extended Not described
Into/Out of Pain "To feel stretch" "To feel stretch" Not described Not described Not described Not described Not described Not described
Supervised? No No Not applicable No No No No Not applicable