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Table 3 Summary of study characteristics

From: The effectiveness of manual stretching in the treatment of plantar heel pain: a systematic review

  DiGiovani et al
[15]
Hyland et al
[17]
Porter et al
[14]
Radford et al
[19]
Sharma and Loudon
[20]
Wynne et al
[18]
Recruitment Patients with plantar fasciitis not responsive to previous conservative treatment General Practitioner's surgeries and local gyms Orthopaedic clinic Local community (newspaper adverts) Local community and university Local community & physician referrals
Clinical signs and symptoms Maximal pain on palpation of plantar fascia origin.
Diagnosis of plantar fasciitis by a Physician
Pain > 3/10 on initial weightbearing.
Pain localised at the plantar heel
Pain localised at the plantar heel.
Pain at worst on initial weight-bearing
Pain localised at the plantar heel.
Pain at worst on initial weight-bearing
Diagnosis of plantar fasciitis by a Physician Diagnosis of plantar fasciitis
Sample size for each group A: plantar fascia stretch (non weightbearing) n = 51
B: tendo Achilles stretch (weightbearing) n = 50
A: Stretch (non weightbearing), n = 10
B: Calcaneal taping n = 11
C: No treatment (control) n = 10,
D: Sham tape (Control) n = 10
A: tendo Achilles sustained. stretch (weightbearing) n = 54
B: tendo Achilles intermittent stretch (weightbearing) n = 40
A: Calf muscle stretch and sham ultrasound (weightbearing) n = 46
B: Sham ultrasound (Control) n = 46
A: Stretching exercises (plantar fascia and tendo Achilles) n = 8
B: static progressive stretch ankle brace n = 9
A: Counterstrain (non weightbearing) n = 10
B: Placebo non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (Control) n = 10
Mean age (SD, range) in years A: 44.6 (23-60)
B 47.1 (31-60)
A 34.1(5.9),
B 45.5 (12.0), C 40.4 (9.4), D 37.6 (10.1)
A 45.4 (11.1)
B 45.9 (12.1)
A 50.7 (11.8)
B 50.1 (11.0)
A 40.3 (7.0)
B 44.2 (11.3)
Mean not documented
(20-66)
Symptom duration. Number of subjects and mean duration or range and percentage if unavailable (months) A: 20 (10-12), 4 (13-18), 1 (19-24), 9 (25-36), 12 (>36).
B: 5 (10-12), 15 (13-18), 8 (19-24), 3 (25-36), 5 (>36)
Not documented A: 54% > 6
B: (53%) > 6
A Median 13 (4-610)
B Median 13 (3-121)
A 9.2 (7.7)
B 12.2 (6.4)
Not documented
Previous conservative treatment n (%) Not documented Not documented A 19 (35), B 17 (43) Not documented "Most" Not documented
Body Mass Index Mean (SD) A 28.2,
B 28.4
A 26.3 (3.8),
B 24.8 (4.4), C 25.4 (4.3), D 23.6 (1.7)
A 27.7 (5.8)
B 29.2 (5.6)
A: 31.6 (5.8)
B: 32.1 (6.5)
Not documented Not documented
Hours standing per day Mean (SD) A: 6,
B: 5.4
Not documented Not documented A: 7.5 (5.5),
B: 9.1 (3.7)
Not documented Not documented
  1. Abbreviations: SD = standard deviation. Letters A, B, etc refer to group allocation.