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Table 10 Summary of changes in mean pain scores for groups receiving different types of stretches

From: The effectiveness of manual stretching in the treatment of plantar heel pain: a systematic review

  Outcome Group Baseline
Score
(+/- SD)
Follow up
score
(+/- SD)
Change in mean
score
(+/- SD) if
available
Between group
difference
(p value)
Giovanni [15] Pain
(100 mm visual analogue scale)
sub-scale of Foot Function Index
(0 = no pain)
Weight bearing
Achilles stretch
Not stated Not stated Pain at worst
-14.7 ##(+/-19.9)
1st am steps
-13.2 ##(+/-27.7)
Combined pain
score
-13.0##(+/-20.8)
Pain at worst
p = 0.02
#Mean 11.3
1st steps in morning
p = 0.006
#Mean 17.9
Combined score
p > 0.05
#Mean 6.0
   Non weight
bearing plantar
fascia stretch
Not stated Not stated Pain at worst
-26.0 ##(+/-24.3)
1st am steps
-31.1 ##(+/-28.8)
Combined pain score
-19.0 ##(+/-19.9)
 
Porter [14] Foot and ankle pain score Sustained 57.5 (20.1) 79.7 (17.5) #22.2 P = 0.315
  (100 = no pain) Intermittent 53.5 (22.0) 82.5 (15.2) #29.0  
  1. Abbreviations: SD = standard deviation, SE = standard error.
  2. #Calculated by current authors or estimated from charts
  3. ##Current authors estimation from charts and converting standard error to standard deviation (SD = SE√n)