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Table 10 Summary of changes in mean pain scores for groups receiving different types of stretches

From: The effectiveness of manual stretching in the treatment of plantar heel pain: a systematic review

  Outcome Group Baseline Score (+/- SD) Follow up score (+/- SD) Change in mean score (+/- SD) if available Between group difference (p value)
Giovanni [15] Pain (100 mm visual analogue scale) sub-scale of Foot Function Index (0 = no pain) Weight bearing Achilles stretch Not stated Not stated Pain at worst -14.7 ##(+/-19.9) 1st am steps -13.2 ##(+/-27.7) Combined pain score -13.0##(+/-20.8) Pain at worst p = 0.02 #Mean 11.3 1st steps in morning p = 0.006 #Mean 17.9 Combined score p > 0.05 #Mean 6.0
   Non weight bearing plantar fascia stretch Not stated Not stated Pain at worst -26.0 ##(+/-24.3) 1st am steps -31.1 ##(+/-28.8) Combined pain score -19.0 ##(+/-19.9)  
Porter [14] Foot and ankle pain score Sustained 57.5 (20.1) 79.7 (17.5) #22.2 P = 0.315
  (100 = no pain) Intermittent 53.5 (22.0) 82.5 (15.2) #29.0  
  1. Abbreviations: SD = standard deviation, SE = standard error.
  2. #Calculated by current authors or estimated from charts
  3. ##Current authors estimation from charts and converting standard error to standard deviation (SD = SE√n)